Gigantic List Of Herbals (Books About Herbs) From 4,000+ Years Of Herbalism

What is a(n) Herbal?

A(n) herbal is a 'book of herbs'. Herbals are usually written in encyclopaedic style - with an alphabetical listing of herbs, together with descriptions of the plants, their various virtues and the opinions of the author. Herbals very often contain pictures of the herbs being described and some of the old herbals were illustrated with great artistry. Many of the old herbals gathered and compiled information from even older sources and are truly "windows into the past", giving us fascinating information not only about the medicinal practices of old times, but also insights into their world-view and knowledge of other sciences.

Herbals have been in use for thousands of years: The oldest surviving herbal is often considered to be the Ebers Papyrus, dating to around 1550 B.C. and based on sources up to 2,000 years older! Astonishingly, some of the remedies advised by the Ebers Papyrus are still in use today. Another truly ancient herbal that exists is a manuscript copied from a Sumerian text: Dated to around the 7th century B.C., it is believed to have been copied from a now-lost work dating to 2,500 B.C.

Herbals were among the most copied and prized books of ancient times. They often represented the pinnacle and summary of the medical knowledge of their day.

In addition to much information that is valuable and which has formed the basis of many modern medicines, some of the ancient herbals give bizarre or wondrous descriptions of attributes of plants that sound truly supernatural to the modern reader. The world-view of the ancients was very different to that of today - and it is typical for modern science to dismiss such writings as pure fable. However, there is often very interesting information in ancient texts and ancient herbals can often provide surprising insight into the qualities of plants - if we can be certain of their identity (as this can sometimes be lost over the course of the centuries). [1]

In mediæval Europe, prior to the advent of printing, herbals were typically written in Latin and copied by hand by monks. Thus passed around from scriptorium to scriptorium, herbals often acquired copious annotations either from the comments of other herbals or the working experiences of the users. Versions of herbals such as the 1st century De Materia Medica of Dioscorides acquired extended commentaries, some of which may never have been translated and may yet yield interesting or useful information about the herbs.

incipit tractatus
Above: A page from an old herbal: The 1499 Latin printed edition of Arnaldus de Villanova's "Inicipit Tractatus de Virtutibus Herbarum"

List of Herbals

Here is a giant list of herbals from ancient to modern times. This is a work in progress. A large part of the information currently in this list, in particular the English Herbals and the Manuscript Herbals (9th-16th cent), is derived from Eleanour Sinclair Rohde's "The Old English Herbals" of 1922. Over time, more will be added, amended and organized... also links to where they can be found.



ENGLISH LANGUAGE HERBALS (printed) 1495-present

EURPOPEAN LANGUAGE HERBALS (printed) 1495-present




MANUSCRIPT HERBALS (9th-16th cent)


BOOKS about HERBALS (i.e. books tracing the history of books about herbs)

ENGLISH LANGUAGE HERBALS (printed) 1495-present

The Herbals are listed according to authors, or, in the case of anonymous works, according to the names by which they are usually known, and all known editions are given [up to 1922]. In cases where only one copy of an edition is known the library where it is to be found is indicated. Editions mentioned in Ames, Hazlitt, etc., but of which no copies are now known, are listed, but in each case the fact that the only mention of them is to be found in one of the above is stated.

Bartholomæus Anglicus - "De Proprietatibus Rerum" (1495 ed.) The seventeenth book of De Proprietatibus Rerum - containing nineteen chapters - is on herbs. Already a highly successful and popular book in manuscript form since its creation in c. 1230–1240, before being printed in 1495, it was the first Encyclopedia written in the English language. It was also the first original work on plants by an English writer to be printed, and the woodcut at the beginning of the book was probably the first botanical illustration to be printed in an English book. A Latin edition was printed in 1482

There is the following note on a slip in the copy of this edition in the British Museum. "This is generally considered to be the finest copy known of a work which is certainly the chef d'œuvre of Winkin de Worde's press. The paper on which it is printed is said to be the first ever made in England for the press. See Douce, ii. 278. Dibdin, Typt. Ant. ii. 310."

1535. Bartholomeus de Proprietatibus Rerum. Londini in Aedibus Thomæ Berthelete. Regii Impressoris.

1582. Batman uppon Barthōlome His Booke De Proprietatibus Rerum. Newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such Additions as are requisite unto every seuerall Booke: Taken foorth of the most approved Authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all Estates as well for the benefite of the Mind as the Bodie. London. Imprinted by Thomas East, dwelling by Paules Wharfe. A nice edition is currently available on Amazon - Batman upon Bartholme: His Booke De Proprietatibus Rerum (Anglistica & Americana) (Latin and English Edition)

(For other language editions, French, Dutch and Spanish translations, see EUROPEAN HERBALS (printed)

Banckes's Herbal (1525)

"Here begynnyth a new mater the whiche sheweth and treateth of y e vertues & proprytes of herbes / the whiche is called an Herball ˙.˙ | ¶ Cum gratia & priuilegio | a rege indulto |

Colophon. ¶ Imprynted by me Rycharde Banckes / dwellynge in | Lōdō / a lytel fro y e Stockes in ye Pultry / y e xxv day of | Marche. The yere of our Lorde, M.CCCCC. & XXV. Black-letter 4to.

1526. Second edition of above. Only known copy is in the Cambridge University Library. Title and colophon identical except for slight differences in spelling.

¶ Here begynneth a newe marer / y e whiche sheweth and | treateth of the vertues & propertes of her- | bes / the whiche is callyd | an Herball | .˙. | ¶ Cum priuilegio. |

Colophon. ¶ Imprynted by me Rycharde Banckes / dwellynge in | Lōdō / a lytell fro y e Stockes in y e Pultry / ye xxv daye of June. The yere of our Lorde, M.CCCCC. & XXVI. Black-letter 4to.

1530. (approximate date assigned in the catalogue of the British Museum). A boke of | the propertyes | of herbes the | whiche is | called an | Herbal | cross pattee |

Colophon. Imprynted at | London in Fletestrete at | the sygne of the George by | me Robert Red- | man .˙. | cross pattee | Black-letter 8vo.

1532-1537 (approximate date assigned by Mr. H. M. Barlow). "‘A boke of the propertyes of herbes the which is called an Herbal.' Contains k 4. ‘At the end, Imprynted at London by me John Skot dwellynge in Fauster Lane.' This over his device which is his cypher on a shield, hung on a rose-tree, flowering above the shield, supported by two griffins: at the bottom is a dog nearly couchant; I. S., the initials of his name, one on each side of the trunk of the tree. In the collection of Mr. Alchorne. Twelves."

The above is quoted from Herbert's edition of Ames, 1785. No copy of the work can now be found in any of the chief British libraries. Mr. Gordon Duff in his list of books printed by John Skot mentions "The Book of Herbes. 12mo. undated."

The following editions printed by Robert Wyer are all undated. The dates assigned in the British Museum Catalogue are 1530, 1535, 1540.

¶ If A newe Her- | ball of Macer, | Translated | out of La- | ten in to | Englysshe.

Colophon. ¶ Imprynted by | me Robert wyer, | dwellynge in saint Martyns pa | ryshe, at the sygne of saynt | John̄ Euangelyst | besyde Charyn | ge Crosse. | cross pattee | Secretary type, 8vo.

¶ Hereafter folo | weth the know- | ledge, proper | ties, and the | vertues of | Herbes.

Colophon. ¶ Imprynted by | me Robert Wyer, | dwellynge in saynt Martyns pa- | rysshe, at the sygne of saynt | John̄ Euangelyst, | besyde Charyn | ge Crosse. | cross pattee | Secretary type 8vo.

Macers | Herbal | Practy- | syd by | Doctor | Lynacro | Translated out of laten, | into Englysshe, which | shewynge theyr Ope- | raycions & Vertues, | set in the margent | of this Boke, to | the extent you | myght knowe | theyr Ver- | tues.

Colophon. Imprynted by | me Robert wyer | dwellynge in seynt Martyns Pa- | rysshe at the sygne of seynt | Iohn̄ Euangelyst, besyde Charyn- | ge Crosse. Black-letter 8vo.

The only known copies of the two following editions are in the Bodleian Library.

1541. A boke of | the propertyes | of herbes the whiche | is called an Har | bal, MD. | XLI. |

Colophon. ¶ Imprynted at London | in Paules Churchyearde, | at the Sygne of the may- | dens head by Tho- | mas Petyt. | M.D.X.(I.) Black-letter 8vo.

1546. A boke of | the propertyes | of herbes the | whiche is | called an | Herbal.

Colophon. Imprinted | at London in Fletstrete | at the sygne of the George | nexte to seynt Dunstones churche | by me Wyllyam Myddylton | in the yere of our Lorde | M.CCCCC.XLVI. | The thyrde day | of July | Black-letter 8vo.

1548 (date assigned in the catalogue of the library of the Manchester Medical Society. Only known copy.) ¶ A boke of | the propertes | of herbes the | which is cal | led an her | bal. | cross pattee |

Colophon. Imprynted at | London by | Johan Waley, | dwellynge in | Foster Lane. | Black-letter 8vo.

1550 (date assigned in the British Museum Catalogue). A boke of the | properties of Herbes called an her- | ball, whereunto is added the tyme y e | herbes, floures and Sedes shoulde | be gathered to be kept the whole ye- | re, with the vertue of y e Herbes whē | they are stylled. Also a generall rule | of al manner of Herbes drawen out | of an auncient boke | of Physycke by | W. C. |

Colophon. Imprinted at London by Wyllyam | Copland. | Black-letter 8vo.

1552 (date assigned in the British Museum Catalogue). A boke of the | propreties of Herbes called an her | ball, whereunto is added the time y e | herbes, floures and Sedes shold | be gathered to be kept the whole | yere | wyth the vertue of y e Her- | bes when they are stilled. Al- | so a generall rule of all ma- | ner of Herbes drawen | out of an auncyent | booke of Phisyck | by W. C. |

Colophon. ¶ Imprynted at London in the | Flete strete at the sygne of | the Rose Garland by | me Wyllyam Copland. | for John Wyght |. Black-letter 8vo.

The two following editions published by Anthony Kitson and Richard Kele may be ascribed to Copland's press. No copies exist in the chief British libraries. The titles are quoted from Ames.

"A booke of the properties of Herbes, called an Herball. Whereunto is added the tyme that Herbes, Floures and Seedes should bee gathered to bee kept the whole yeare, wyth the vertue of the Herbes when they are stylled. Also a generall rule of all maner of Herbs, drawen out of an auncient booke of Physicke by W. C. Walter Carey. Contains besides X 4 in eights. For him."

1550 (date assigned by Mr. Gordon Duff, but in Ames 1552). "The book of the properties of herbes, called an herball, etc., drawn out of an ancient book of phisyck by W. C."

1550. A lytel | herball of the | properties of her- | bes newely amended & corrected, | with certayne addicions at the ende | of the boke, declaryng what herbes | hath influence of certaine Sterres | and constellations, wherby may be | chosen the beast & most luckye | tymes and dayes of their mini- | stracion, accordynge to the | Moone being in the sig- | nes of heauen, the | which is dayly | appoynted | in the Almanacke, made & gathered | in the yere of our Lorde god | M.D.L. the xii day of Fe- | bruary by Anthonye | Askham Phi- | sycyon.

Colophon. Imprinted at | London in Flete- | strete at the signe of the George | nexte to Saynte Dunstones | Churche by Wylly- | am Powell. In the yeare of oure Lorde | M.D.L. the twelfe day of Marche. Black-letter 8vo.

1550 A litle Her- | ball of the properties of Herbes, | newly amended & corrected, wyth | certayne Additions at the ende of | the boke, declaring what Herbes | hath influence of certain Sterres | and constellations, whereby maye | be chosen the best & most lucky | tymes & dayes of their mini- | stracion, according to the Moone | beyng in the signes of heauē | the which is daily appoī | ted in the Almanacke, | made and gathe- | red in the yeare | of our Lorde | God. | M.D.L. the xii daye of Febru | ary by Anthony Askhā | Physycyon |

Colophon. Imprynted at London, in | Paule's churchyarde, at the signe of the Swanne, by | Ihon Kynge. | Black-letter 8 vo.

1555-1561 (approximate date assigned by Mr. H. M. Barlow). ¶ A boke of the | propreties of Herbes called an her | ball, whereunto is added the time y e | herbes, floures and Sedes shold | be gathered to be kept the whole | yere, with the vertue of y e Her | bes when they are stilled. Al- | so a general rule of al ma- | ner of Herbes drawen out of an auncient | boke of Phisyck | by W. C. |

Colophon. ¶ Imprinted at London by | Iohn kynge, for | Abraham Wely |. Black-letter 8 vo.

The Grete Herball.

1516. The Grete Herball. Imprented at London in Southwark by me Peter Treveris. MD XVI. the xx day of June.

(Mentioned by Ames. No copy of this edition in any of the chief British libraries and no other record of it.)

1525(?). The Grete herball, which is translated out ye Frensshe into Englysshe. With the Mark of Peter Treveris. Undated.

(Mentioned by Hazlitt, who ascribes the date 1525-6. There is no other record of this edition.)

1527. The grete herball. MDXXVII. 18 April.

(Mentioned by Ames as having been printed by Treveris for Laurence Andrew. No copy of this edition in any of the chief British libraries and no other record of it.)

1526. The grete herball | whiche geueth parfyt knowlege and under- | standyng of all maner of herbes & there gracyous vertues whiche god hath | ordeyned for our prosperous welfare and helth, for they hele & cure all maner | of dyseases and sekenesses that fall or mysfortune to all maner of creatoures | of god created, practysed by many expert and wyse maysters, as Auicenna and | other &c. Also it geueth full parfyte understandynge of the booke lately pryn | ted by me (Peter treueris) named the noble experiens of the vertuous hand | warke of Surgery.

Colophon. ¶ Imprentyd at London in South- | warke by me peter Treueris, dwel- | lynge in the sygne of the wodows. | In the yere of our Lorde god. M.D. | XXVI. the xxvii day of July. Black-letter folio.

1529. Second edition of the above also printed by Treveris. Wording of the title is the same.

Colophon differs from the first edition in that it does not contain the printer's address.

¶ Imprynted at London in South | warke by me Peter Treueris. In | the yere of our Lorde god. M.D.XXIX. | the xvii day of Marce. Black-letter folio.

1539. The great herball | newly corrected. | The contents of this boke. | A table after the Latyn names of all | herbes, | A table after the Englyshe names of all | herbes. | The propertees and qualytes of all | thynges in this booke, | The descrypcyon of urynes, how a man | shall haue trewe knowledge of all seke- | nesses. | An exposycyon of the wordes obscure and | not well knowen. | A table, quyckly to fynde Remedyes | for all dyseases. | God saue the Kynge. | Londine in Edibus Thome Gybson. | Anno | M.D.XXXIX. Black-letter folio.

This edition contains no cuts.

1550. Edition of "The Grete Herball" mentioned in Ames and Pulteney. No copy of this edition in any of the chief British libraries.

1561. The greate Herball, which | geueth parfyte knowledge & un- | derstandinge of al maner of her | bes, and theyr gracious vertues, whiche God hath ordeyned for | our prosperous welfare and health, for they heale and cure all ma- | ner of diseases and sekenesses, that fall or mysfortune too all | maner of creatures of God created, practysed by many | experte and wyse maysters, as Auicenna, Pandecta, | and more other, &c. ¶ Newlye corrected and dili | gently ouersene. | In the yeare of our Lord | God. M.CCCCC.LXI.

Colophon. Imprynted at London in | Paules churcheyarde, at the signe of the Swane, | by Jhon Kynge. In the yeare of our | Lorde God. M.D.LXI. Black-letter folio.

"The vertuose boke Of Distyllacyon of the waters of all maner of Herbes."

1527. [The vertuose boke of Distyllacyon of the waters of all maner of Herbes / with the figures of the styllatoryes / Fyrst made and compyled by the thyrte yeres study and labour of the most conynge and famous mayster of phisyke / Master Jherom bruynswyke And now newly Translate out of Duyche into Englysshe. Not only to the synguler helpe and profyte of the Surgyens / Physycyens / and Pothecaryes / But also of all maner of people / Parfytely and in dewe tyme and ordre to lerne to dystyll all maner of Herbes / To the Profyte / cure / and Remedy of all maner dysseases and Infirmytees Apparant and not apparant. ¶ And ye shall understand that the waters be better than the Herbes / as Auicenna testefyeth in his fourthe Conon saynge that all maner medicynes ysed with theyr substance / febleth and maketh aged / and weke.

¶ Cum gratia et preuilegio regali.

Colophon. Imprinted at London in the flete strete by me Laurens Andrewe / in the sygne of the golden Crosse. In the yere of our lorde M.CCCC.XXVII (sic) the xvii daye of Apryll.

Goddis grace shall euer endure.

Second edition. Title identical with above.

Colophon. Imprynted at London in the flete strete by me Laurens Andrewe / in the Sygne of the golden Crosse. In the yere of our Lorde MCCCCCXXVII, the xviii daye of Apryll.

¶ Goddys grace shall euer endure.]

(This edition, although professedly printed one day later, varies considerably from the preceding.)

William Turner.

1538. [Libellus de | re herbaria novus | in quo herbarum aliquot no- | mina greca, latina & Anglica | habes, vna cum nomini- | bus officinarum, in | gratiam stu- | diose | iuuentutis nunc pri- | mum in lucem | æditus. Londini apud Ioannem Bydellum | Anno dn̄i. 1538.]

1877. [Libellus de re herbaria novus by William Turner, originally published in 1538. Reprinted in facsimile, with notes, modern names, and A Life of the author, by Benjamin Daydon Jackson, F.L.S. Privately printed. London, 1877.]

1544. Historia de Naturis Herbarum Scholiis et Notis Vallata. Printed at Cologne.

(This book is mentioned by Bumaldus, but is not otherwise known.)

1548. The na | mes of herbes in | Greke, Latin, Englishe, | Duche, and Frenche wyth | the commune names | that Herbaries | and Apoteca | ries use, | Gathered by Wil- | liam Tur | ner.

Colophon. Imprinted | at London by John Day | and Wyllyam Setes, dwel- | lynge in Sepulchres Parish | at the signe of the Resur- | rection a litle aboue Hol- | bourne Conduite. | Cum gratia & priuilegio | ad imprimendum solum.

1881. The names of Herbes by William Turner, A.D. 1548. Edited (with an introduction, an index of English names, and an identification of the plants enumerated by Turner) by James Britten, F.L.S. London. Published for the English Dialect Society, by N. Trübner & Co.

1551. A new Her- | ball, wherein are conteyned the names of Herbes in Greke, La- | tin, Englysh, Duch, Frenche, and | in the Potecaries and Herbari- | es Latin, with the properties | degrees and naturall places of | the same, gathered & made | by Wylliam Turner, | Phisicion unto the | Duke of So- | mersettes | Grace. | Imprinted | at London by Steven | Mierdman. | Anno 1551. | Cum Priuilegio ad imprimendum solum. | And they are to be sold in Paules Churchyarde.

Colophon. Imprinted at London, By Steuen Myerdman, and they are to be soolde in Paules | churchyarde at the sygne of the sprede Egle by | John Gybken.

1562. The seconde parte of Vui- | liam Turners herball, wherein are conteyned the | names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Duche, Frenche, and in the | Apothecaries Latin, and somtyme in Italiane, wyth the ver- | tues of the same herbes | with diuerse confutationes of no small errours, that men of no small learning haue committed in the intreatinge of herbes | of late yeares |

Imprinted at Collen by Arnold Birckman | In the yeare of our Lorde M.D. LXII. | Cum gratia et Priuilegio Reg. Maiest.

1568. The first and seconde partes of the Herbal of William Turner Doctor in Phisick lately ouersene corrected and enlarged with the Thirde parte / lately gathered / and nowe set oute with the names of the herbes / in Greke Latin / English / Duche / Frenche / and in the Apothecaries and Herbaries Latin / with the properties / degrees / and naturall places of the same.

Imprinted at Collen by Arnold Birckman / In the yeare of our Lorde M.D. LXVIII.

Albertus Magnus.

1560 (?). [The boke | of secretes of Albartus Mag | nus, of the vertues of | Herbes, stones and certaine beastes. | Also a boke of the same au | thor, of the marvaylous thin | ges of the world: and of | certaine effectes, cau | sed of certayne | beastes.]

Williyam Bullein.

1562. ¶ BVLLEINS | Bulwarke of defēce | againste all Sicknes, Sornes, and woundes, that dooe | daily assaulte mankinde, whiche Bulwarke is | kepte with Hillarius the Gardiner, Health the | Phisician, with their Chyrurgian, to helpe the | wounded soldiors. Gathered and pra- | ctised frō the moste worthie learn- | ned, bothe old and newe: to | the greate comforte of | mankinde: Doen | by Williyam | Bulleyn, | and ended this Marche, | Anno Salutis. 1562 | ¶ Imprinted at London, by Jhon Kyngston.

1579. BVLLEINS | Bulwarke of Defence against | all Sicknesse, Soarenesse | and VVoundes that | doe dayly assaulte mankinde: Which Bulwarke is | kept with Hilarius the Gardener, and Health | the Phisicion, with the Chirurgian, to helpe the | Wounded Souldiours. Gathered and practised from | the most worthy learned, both olde and new: | to the great comfort of Mankinde: by | VVilliam Bullein, Doctor of Phi- | sicke. 1562. Imprinted | At London by Thomas Marshe, dwellinge | in Fleete streete neare unto Saincte | Dunstanes Chur (sic)| 1579. | Eccle. 38. Altissimus creauit de terra medicinam, & vir prudens non abhorrebit illam.

John Maplet.

1567. A greene Forest, or a naturall Historie, Wherein may bee seene first the most sufferaigne Vertues in all the whole kinde of Stones & Mettals: next of Plants, as of Herbes, Trees, & Shrubs, Lastly of Brute Beastes, Foules, Fishes, creeping wormes & Serpents, and that Alphabetically: so that a Table shall not neede. Compiled by John Maplet M. of Arte, and student in Cambridge: extending hereby y t God might especially be glorified: and the people furdered. Anno 1567. Imprinted at London by Henry Denham, dwelling in Pater-noster Rovve at the Starre. Anno Domini. 1567. June 3. Cum Priuilegio.

(The dedicatory epistle is to the Earl of Sussex, "Justice of the Forrestes & Chases from Trent Southward; and Captaine of the Gentlemen Pensioners, of the house of the Queene our Soueraigne Ladie, Eliz.").

Pierre Pena and Matthias de l'Obel.

1571. Stirpium Adversaria Nova, | perfacilis vestigatio, luculentaque accessio ad Priscorum, presertim | Dioscoridis et recentiorum, Materiam Medicam. | Quibus propediem accedat altera pars. | Qua | Coniectaneorum de plantis appendix, | De succis medicatis et Metallicis sectio, | Antiquæ e[t] nouatæ Medicine lectiorum remediorū | thesaurus opulentissimus, | De Succedaneis libellus, continentur. | Authoribus Petro Pena & Mathia de Lobel, Medicis. |

Colophon. Londini, 1571 | Calendis Januariis excudebat prelum Tho- | mæ Purfœtii ad Lucretie symbolum. | Cum gratia Priuilegii. |

1605. Petrus Pena & Matthias de L'Obel. Dilvcidæ simplicivm medicamenorvm explicationes, & stirpivm adversaria, perfacilis vestigatio, luculentaque accessio ad priscorum, præsertim Dioscoridis & recentiorum materiæ medicæ solidam cognitionem. Londini 1605.

1654. Matthiæ de l'Obel M.D. Botanographi Regii eximii Stirpium Illustrationes. Plurimas elaborantes inauditas plantas, subreptitiis Joh: Parkinsoni rapsodiis ex codice MS insalutato sparsim gravatæ Ejusdem adjecta sunt ad calcem Theatri Botanici Accurante Guil: How, Anglo. Londini Typis Tho: Warren, Impensis Jos: Kirton, Bibliopolæ, in Cæmeterio D. Pauli. 1654.

John Frampton.

1577. Ioyfull | Nevves ovt of | the newe founde worlde, wherein is | declared the rare and singular vertues of diuerse | and sundrie Hearbes, Trees, Oyles, Plantes, and Stones, with | their applications, as well for Phisicke as Chirurgerie, the saied be- | yng well applied bryngeth suche present remedie for | all deseases, as maie seme altogether incredible: | notwithstandyng by practise founde out, | to bee true: Also the portrature of the saied Hearbes, very apt- | ly discribed: Engli- | shed by Jhon | Framp- | ton | Marchaunt |

¶ Imprinted at London in | Poules Churche-yarde, by | Willyam Norton. | Anno Domini. | 1577 |.

1580. Second edition.

1577. The Three | Bookes written in the | Spanishe tonge, by the famous | Phisition D. Monardes, residēt in the | Citie of Seuill in Spaine and | translated into Englishe by | Jhon Frampton | Marchant |

¶ Imprinted at London in | Poules Churche-yarde, by | Willyam Norton. | 1577 |.

(A duplicate of the preceding with a different title-page.)

1596. Ioyfull newes | out of the new-found | worlde | Wherein are declared the rare and | singuler vertues of diuers Herbs, Trees, | Plantes, Oyles & Stones, with their ap- | plications, as well to the vse of phisicts, as of | chirurgery, which being well applyed bring | a present remedie for al diseases, et may | seeme altogether incredible: Notwith- | standing by practice found out | to be true. | Also the portrature of the said Hearbs | very aptlie described: | by John Frampton, Marchant | Newly corrected as by conference with | the olde copies may appeare. Wher- | vnto are added three other bookes | treating of the Bezaar-stone, the herb | Escuerconera, the properties of Iron | and Steele in medicine and the be- | nefit of snow. Printed by E. Allde by the assigne of | Bonham Norton | 1596.

(For the Spanish original and Latin, Italian, French, Flemish and German translations see European Herbals.)

Henry Lyte.

1578. A Niewe Herball | or Historie of Plantes: | wherein is contayned | the whole discourse and perfect description of all sortes of Herbes | and Plantes: their diuers & sundry kindes: | their straunge Figures, Fashions, and Shapes: | their Names, Natures, Operations, and Ver- | tues: and that not onely of those whiche are | here growyng in this our Countrie of | Englande, but of all others also of forrayne Realmes, commonly | used in Physicke. | First set foorth in the Doutche or Almaigne | tongue, by that learned D. Rembert Do- | doens Physition to the Emperour: | And nowe first translated out of French into English, by Hen- | ry Lyte Esquyer. | At London | by me Gerard Dewes, dwelling in | Paules Churchyarde at the signe | of the Swanne. | 1578.

Colophon. Imprinted at Antwerpe, by me | Henry Loë Bookeprinter, and are to be | solde at London in Powels Churchyarde, | by Gerard Dewes.

1586. A New Herball or Historie of Plants: Wherein is contained the whole discourse and perfect description of all sorts of Herbes and Plants: their diuers and sundrie kindes: their Names, Natures, Operations & Vertues: and that not onely of those which are heere growing in this our Countrie of England, but of all others also of forraine Realms commonly used in Physicke. First set foorth in the Dutch or Almaigne toong by that learned D. Rembert Dodoens Physition to the Emperor: And now first translated out of French into English by Henrie Lyte Esquier. Imprinted at London by Ninian Newton. 1586.

1595. Title identical with above, except for the addition of "Corrected and Amended. Imprinted at London by Edm: Bollifant, 1595."

1619. A New Herbal or Historie of Plants: Wherein is contained the whole discourse and perfect description of all sorts of Herbes and Plants: their diuers and sundry kindes their Names, Natures, Operations and Vertues: and that not onely of those which are here growing in this our Country of England but of all others also of forraine Realmes commonly used in Physicke. First set forth in the Dutch or Almaigne tongue by the learned D. Rembert Dodoens Physicion to the Emperor; and now first translated out of French into English by Henry Lyte Esquire. Corrected and Amended. Imprinted at London by Edward Griffin. 1619.

William Ram.

1606. Rams little Dodoen. A briefe Epitome of the New Herbal, or History of Plants. Wherein is contayned the disposition and true declaration of the Phisike helpes of all sortes of herbes and Plants, under their names and operations, not onely of those which are here in this our Countrey of England growing but of all others also of other Realmes, Countreyes and Nations used in Phisike: Collected out of the most exquisite newe Herball, or History of Plants first set forth in the Dutch or Almayne tongue by the learned and worthy man of famous memory, D. Rembert Dodeon, (sic) Phisicion to the Emperour; And lately translated into English by Henry Lyte, Esquire; And now collected and abbridged by William Ram, Gent. Pandit Oliua suos Ramos.

Imprinted at London by Simon Stafford, dwelling in the Cloth Fayre, at the signe of the three Crownes. 1606.

William Langham.

1579. The Garden of Health: containing the sundry rare and hidden vertues and properties of all kindes of Simples and Plants. Together with the manner how they are to bee used and applyed in medicine for the health of mans body, against diuers diseases and infirmities most common amongst men. Gathered by the long experience and industry of William Langham, Practitioner in Physicke. London. Printed by Thomas Harper with permission of the Company of Stationers.

1633. Second edition. Identical title with the addition "The Second edition corrected and amended."

Thomas Newton.

1587. An | Herbal For | the Bible. | Containing A Plaine | and familiar exposition | of such Similitudes, Parables, and | Metaphors, both in the olde Testament and | the Newe, as are borrowed and taken from | Herbs, Plants, Trees, Fruits, and Simples, | by obseruation of their Vertues, qualities, natures, proper- | ties, operations, | and effects: | And | by the Holie Pro- | phets, Sacred Writers, | Christ himselfe, and his blessed Apostles | usually alledged, and unto their heauenly | Oracles, for the better beautifieng | and plainer opening of | the same, profitably | inserted | Drawen into English by Thomas | Newton. | Imprinted at London by Ed- | mind Bollifant | 1587 |

(The dedicatory epistle is to the Earl of Essex.)

John Gerard.

Gerard's herbal was harshly criticized by George Lillie Craik in his "A compendious history of English literature" of. He wrote "[in the earlier half of the 17th century].. the great authority in botany was still the Herbal, or General History of Plants, of John Gerard, originally published in 1597, which was for the most part merely a hasty and inartificial compilation from Dodonaeus, and nearly as destitute of scientific as of literary merit. "

1596. [Catalogus arborum fruticum ac plantarum tam indigenarum quam exoticarum, in horto Ioannis Gerardi civis et Chirurgi Londinensis nascentium-Londini. Ex officina Roberti Robinson 1596.]

1599. Second edition. Londini. Ex officina Arnoldi Hatfield, impensis Ioannis Norton. (The only known copy of the first edition is in the Sloane collection in the British Museum.)

1876. Modern reprint with notes, etc., by B. D. Jackson.

1597. The | Herball | or Generall | Historie of | Plantes. | Gathered by John Gerarde | of London Master in | Chirurgerie. | Imprinted at London by | John Norton. | 1597.

Colophon. Imprinted at London by Edm Bollifant, | for Bonham & John | Norton M.D.XCVII.

1633. The | Herball | or Generall | Historie of | Plantes. | Gathered by John Gerarde | of London Master in | Chirurgerie | Very much Enlarged and Amended by | Thomas Johnson | Citizen and Apothecarye | of London.

1636. Second edition of the above.

More on Gerard's -

John Parkinson.

1629. [Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris. A Garden of all Sorts of Pleasant Flowers Which Our English Ayre will Permitt to be noursed up: with A Kitchen garden of all manner of herbes, rootes, & fruites, for meate or sause used with us, and An Orchard of all sorte of fruit bearing Trees and shrubbes fit for our Land together With the right orderinge planting & preseruing of them and their uses & vertues. Collected by John Parkinson Apothecary of London 1629.

Colophon. London. Printed by Humfrey Lownes and Robert Young at the signe of the Starre on Bread-Street hill. 1629.

1656. Second edition. Title, etc., identical with above.

1904. Facsimile reprint. Paradisi in Sole. Paradisus Terrestris by John Parkinson. Faithfully reprinted from the edition of 1629. Methuen & Co.]

1640. Theatrum Bo | tanicum: | The Theater of Plants | or a Herball of | a | large extent: | containing therein a more ample and | exact History and declaration of the Physicall Herbs | and Plants that are in other Authors, encreased by the accesse of | many hundreds of newe, | rare and strange Plants from all parts of | the world, with sundry Gummes and other Physicall Materi | als than hath been hitherto published by any before, and | a most large demonstration of their Names and Vertues. | Shewing withall the many errors and differences & | oversights of Sundry Authors that have formerly written of | them, and a certaine confidence, or most probable con | jecture of the true and Genuine Herbes | and Plants. | Distributed into Sundry Classes or Tribes for the | more easie knowledge of the many Herbes of one nature | and property with the chief notes of Dr. Lobel, Dr. Bonham | and others inserted therein. | Collected by the many yeares travaile, industry and experience in this subject, by John Parkinson Apothecary of London, and the King's Herbalist. And Published by the King's Majestyes especiall priviledge. London. Printed by Tho. Cotes. 1640.

Leonard Sowerby.

1651. [The Ladies Dispensatory, containing the Natures, Vertues, and Qualities of all Herbs, and Simples usefull in Physick. Reduced into a Methodicall Order, for their more ready use in any sicknesse or other accident of the Body. The like never published in English. With An Alphabeticall Table of all the Vertues of each Herb, and Simple. London. Printed for R. Ibbitson, to be sold by George Calvert at the Halfe-Moon in Watling Street. 1651.]

Robert Pemell.

1652. [Tractatus, De facultatibus Simplicium, A Treatise of the Nature and Qualities of such Simples as are most frequently used in Medicines. Methodically handled for the benefit of those that understand not the Latine Tongue. By Robert Pemell, Practitioner of Physick, at Cranebrooke in Kent. London, Printed by M. Simmons, for Philemon Stephens, at the guilded Lyon in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1652.

1653. Second Part of the above "Treatise." London, Printed by J. Legatt, for Philemon Stephens, at the guilded Lion in Paul's Church-yard. 1653.]

Nicholas Culpeper.

1652. The English Physician Or an Astrologo-physical Discourse of the Vulgar Herbs of this Nation Being a Compleat Method of Physick whereby a man may preserve his Body in health; or cure himself, being sick, for three pence charge, with such things one-ly as grow in England, they being most fit for English Bodies.

Herein is also shewed,

1. The way of making Plaisters, Oyntments, Oyls, Pultisses, Syrups, Decoctions, Julips, or Waters of all Sorts of Physical Herbs, that you may have them ready for your use at all times of the year.

2. What Planet governeth Every Herb or Tree used in Physick that groweth in England.

3. The Time of gathering all Herbs, but vulgarly and astrologically.

4. The way of drying and Keeping the Herbs all the year.

5. The way of Keeping the Juyces ready for use at all times.

6. The way of making and keeping all Kinde of usefull Compounds made of Herbs.

7. The way of mixing Medicines according to Cause and Mixture of the Disease, and Part of the Body afflicted.

By N. Culpeper, Student in Physick and Astrology.

London, Printed for the benefit of the Common-wealth of England. 1652.

(This is the edition repudiated by the author in subsequent editions as incorrect and unauthorised.)

Subsequent editions 1653, 1661, 1693, 1695, 1714, 1725, 1733, 1784, 1792, 1814, 1820.

1818. (Welsh translation.) Herbal, Neu Lysieu-Lyfr. Y Rhan Gyntaf, Yn Cynnwys Go o Gynghorion Teuluaidd Hawdd iw cael; Wedi ei casglu allan o Waith. N. Culpeper. Ag amrywiol eraill, a'r rhan fwyaf o honynt wedi eu profi yn rhinwellol ac effeilhiol i symud yr amrywrol ddoluriau ac y mae ein Cyrph llygredig yn ddarostyngedig iddynt: Ac y maent yn hollawl ilw defnyddw o Ddail a Llysiau ein bwlad ein hunain. Cewch hefyd gyfar wyddyd i ollwng Gwaed, ac y gymeryd Purge. Yr ail argraphiad. Gan D. T. Jones. Caernarfon, Argraphwyd Gan L. E. Jones. 1818.

1862. Second edition of the above.

William Coles

1656. The Art of Simpling. An Introduction to the Knowledge and Gathering of Plants. Wherein the Definitions, Divisions, Places, Descriptions, Differences, Names, Vertues, Times of flourishing and gathering, Uses, Temperatures, Signatures and Appropriations of Plants, are methodically laid down. Whereunto is added A Discovery of the Lesser World. By W. Coles. London. Printed by J. G. for Nath: Brook at the Angell in Cornhill. 1656.

1657. Adam in Eden, or Nature's Paradise. The History of Plants, Fruits, Herbs and Flowers. With their several Names, whether Greek, Latin, or English; the places where they grow; their Descriptions and Kinds; their times of flourishing and decreasing; as also their several Signatures, Anatomical Appropriations, and particular Physical Vertues; together with necessary Observations on the Seasons of Planting, and gathering of our English Simples, with Directions how to preserve them in their Compositions or otherwise. A Work of such a Refined and Useful Method that the Arts of Physick and Chirurgerie are so clearly Laid Open, that Apothecaries, Chirurgions, and all other ingenuous Practitioners, may from our own Fields and Gardens, best agreeing with our English Bodies, on emergent and Sudden occasions, compleatly furnish themselves with cheap, easie, and wholesome Cures for any part of the body that is ill-affected. For the Herbalists greater benefit, there is annexed a Latin and English Table of the several names of Simples; with another more particular Table of the Diseases, and their Cures, treated of in this so necessary a Work. By William Coles, Herbalist. Printed by J. Streater for Nathaniel Brooke.

Robert Lovell

1659. PAMBOTANOLOGIA (ΠΑΜΒΟΤΑΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ). Sive Enchiridion Botanicum. Or a compleat Herball, Containing the Summe of what hath hitherto been published either by Ancient or Moderne Authors both Galenicall and Chymicall, touching Trees, Shrubs, Plants, Fruits, Flowers, etc. In an Alphabeticall order: wherein all that are not in the Physick Garden in Oxford are noted with asterisks. Shewing their Place, Time, Names, Kindes, Temperature, Vertues, Use, Dose, Danger and Antidotes. Together with an Introduction to Herbarisme, etc. Appendix of Exoticks. Universall Index of plants: shewing what grow wild in England. By Robert Lovell. Oxford. Printed by William Hall for Ric Davis. An. 1659.

1665. Second edition. PAMBOTANOLOGIA (ΠΑΜΒΟΤΑΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ) Sive Enchiridion Botanicum. Or a compleat Herball, Containing the Summe of Ancient and Moderne Authors, both Galenical and Chymical, touching Trees, Shrubs, Plants, Fruits, Flowers, etc. In an Alphabetical order: wherein all that are not in the Physick Garden in Oxford are noted with Asterisks. Shewing their Place, Time, Names, Kinds, Temperature, Vertues, Use, Dose, Danger and Antidotes. Together with An Introduction to Herbarisme, etc. Appendix of Exoticks. Universal Index of Plants: shewing what grow wild in England. The second Edition with many Additions mentioned at the end of the Preface. By Robert Lovell.

Oxford. Printed by W. H. for Ric. Davis. 1665.

John Josselyn.

1672. [New England's Rarities Discovered in Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Serpents, and Plants of that country. Together with the Physical and Chyrurgical Remedies wherewith the Natives constantly use to Cure their Distempers, Wounds and Sores. Also A perfect Description of an Indian Squa in all her Bravery; with a Poem not improperly Conferr'd upon her. Lastly A Chronological Table of the most remarkable Passages in that Country amongst the English. Illustrated with Cuts. By John Josselyn Gent.

London Printed for G. Widdowes at the Green Dragon in St. Pauls Church-yard, 1672.]

W. Hughes.

1672. The American Physitian; Or a Treatise of the Roots, Plants, Trees, Shrubs, Fruit, Herbs, etc., growing in the English Plantations in America. Describing the Place, Time, Names, Kindes, Temperature, Vertues and Uses of them, either for Diet, Physick, etc. Whereunto is added A Discourse of the Cacao-Nut-Tree, and the use of its Fruit, with all the ways of making Chocolate. The like never extant before. By W. Hughes.

London, Printed by J. C. for William Crook, at the Green Dragon without Temple-Bar. 1672.

John Archer.

1673. A Compendious Herbal, discovering the Physical Vertue of all Herbs in this Kingdom, and what Planet rules each Herb, and how to gather them in their Planetary Hours. Written by John Archer, One of His Majesties Physicians in Ordinary. London, Printed for the Author, and are to be sold at his House at the Sign of the Golden Ball in Winchester Street, near Broad Street. 1673.

Robert Morison.

1680. [Plantarum Historiæ Universalis Oxoniensis. Pars Secunda seu Herbarum Distributio Nova, per Tabulas Cognationis & Affinitatis Ex Libro Naturæ Observata & Detecta. Auctore Roberto Morison. Medico & Professore Botanico Regio, nec non Inclytæ & Celeberrimæ Universitatis Oxoniensis P. B. ejusdemque Hort. Botan. Præfecto primo. Oxonii, E Theatro Sheldoniano Anno Domini M.D.C.LXXX.

1699. Pars tertia. Partem hanc tertiam, post Auctoris mortem, hortatu Academiæ explevit & absolvit Jacobus Bobartius forte præfectus.]

(The first part was never published.)

John Ray.

1686. [Historia Plantarum Species hactenus editas aliasque insuper multas noviter inventas & descriptas complectens. In qua agitur primo De Plantis in genere, Earumque Partibus, Accidentibus & Differentiis; Deinde Genera omnia tum summa tum Subalterna ad Species usque infimas, Notis suis certis & Characteristicis Definita, Methodo Naturæ vestigiis insistente disponuntur; Species Singulæ accurate describuntur, obscura illustrantur, omissa supplentur, superflua resecantur, Synonyma necessaria Adjiciuntur; Vires denique & Usus recepti compendiò traduntur. Auctore Joanne Raio, E Societate Regiâ & S.S. Individuæ Trinitatis Collegii apud Cantabrigienses Quondam Socio.

Londini Mariæ Clark: Prostant apud Henricum Faithorne Regiæ Societatis Typographum ad Insigne Rosæ in Cæmeterio. D Pauli.


Leonard Plukenet.

1690. [Leonardi Plukenetij Phytographia. Sive Stirpium Illustriorum & minus cognitarum Icones, Tabulis Æneis, Summa diligentia elaboratæ, Quarum unaquæg Titulis descriptorijs ex Notis Suis proprijs, & Characteristicis desumptis, insignita; ab alijs ejusdem Sortis facile discriminatur. Pars prior Meminisse juvabit. Londini MDCXC, Sumptibus Autoris.]

William Westmacott.

1694.THEOLOBOTANOLOGIA ( ΘΕΟΛΟΒΟΤΑΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ) Sive Historia Vegetabilium Sacra: or, a Scripture Herbal; wherein all the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, Plants, Flowers, Fruits, &c., Both Foreign and Native, that are mentioned in the Holy Bible, (being near Eighty in Number) are in an Alphabetical Order, Rationally Discoursed of, Shewing, Their Names, Kinds, Descriptions, Places, Manner of Propagation, Countries, various Uses, Qualities and Natural Principles, &c. Together with their Medicinal Preparations, Virtues and Dose, Galenically and Chymically handled and Performed according to the newest Doctrines of Philosophy, Herbarism and Physick. The whole being Adorned with variety of Matter, and Observations, not only Medicinall, but Relating to the Alimental and Mechanical Uses of the Plants. Fit for Divines, and all Persons of any other Profession and Calling whatsoever, that use to read the Holy Scriptures, wherein they find not only Physick for the Soul, but also with the help of this Herbal, (may the better understand the Bible, which also yields them) safe Medicines for the Cure of their Corporal Diseases. The like never extant before. By William Westmacott of the Borough of Newcastle under Line, in the County of Stafford, Physican. Adoro Scripturæ Plenitudinem. Tertul. London, Printed for T. Salusbury, at the King's-Arms next St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet-street. 1694.

John Pechey.

1694. The Compleat Herbal of Physical Plants. Containing All such English and Foreign Herbs, Shrubs and Trees, as are used in Physick and Surgery. And to the Virtues of those that are now in use, is added one Receipt, or more, of some Learned Physician. The Doses or Quantities of such as are prescribed by the London Physicians, and others, are proportioned. Also Directions for Making Compound-Waters, Syrups Simple and Compound, Electuaries, Pills, Powders, and other Sorts of Medicines. Moreover, The Gums, Balsams, Oyls, Juices, and the like, which are sold by Apothecaries and Druggists, are added to this Herbal; and their Virtues and Uses are fully described. By John Pechey, Of the College of Physicians, in London. Printed for Henry Bonwicke, at the Red Lyon in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1694.

William Salmon.

1710. Botanologia. The English Herbal: or History of Plants. Containing I. Their Names, Greek, Latine and English. II. Their Species, or various Kinds. III. Their Descriptions. IV. Their Places of Growth. V. Their Times of Flowering and Seeding. VI. Their Qualities or Properties. VII. Their Specifications. VIII. Their Preparations, Galenick and Chymick. IX. Their Virtues and Uses. X. A Complete Florilegium, of all the choice Flowers cultivated by our Florists, interspersed through the whole Work, in their proper Places; where you have their Culture, Choice, Increase, and Way of Management, as well for Profit as for Delectation. Adorned with Exquisite Icons or Figures, of the most considerable Species, representing to the Life, the true Forms of those Several Plants. The whole in an Alphabetical Order. By William Salmon, M.D. London: Printed by I. Dawks, for H. Rhodes, at the Star, the Corner of Bride-Lane, in Fleet-Street; and J. Taylor, at the Ship in Pater-noster-Row. M.DCC.X.

(The dedicatory epistle is to Queen Anne.)

James Petiver.

1715. [Hortus Peruvianus Medicinalis: or, the South-Sea herbal. Containing the names, figures, vse, &c., of divers medicinal plants, lately discovered by Pere L. Feuillee, one of the King of France's herbalists. To which are added, the figures, &c., of divers American gum-trees, dying woods, drugs, as the Jesuits bark-tree and others, much desired and very necessary to be known by all such as now traffick to the South-Seas or reside in those parts.]

(Undated.) Botanicum Londinense, or London Herbal. Giving the Names, Descriptions and Virtues &c. of such Plants about London as have been observed in the several Monthly Herborizings made for the Use of the young Apothecaries and others, Students in the Science of Botany or Knowledge of Plants.

(Undated.) Botanicum Anglicum, or The English Herball: Wherein is contained a curious Collection of Real Plants being the true Patterns of such Trees, Shrubs and Herbs as are observed to grow Wild in England. By which any one may most easily attain to the Speedy and True Knowledge of them. With an Account (affixed to each Plant) of their Names, Places where Growing, and Times of Flourishing: As also what Parts and Preparations, of Each Physical Plant, are most in Use. And for the farther Instruction and Satisfaction of such, who are Lovers of Plants, The Composer of this Collection chose to make his chiefest References to the General History, Catalogue and Synopsis of that Learned Author, and most Judicious Botanist, Mr. John Ray: As also to our Two most Esteemed English Herballs, Johnson upon Gerard and Parkinson; and for your more speedy finding each Plant, he hath quoted the Page, wherein you may observe its Name, Figure or Description.

Sold by Samuel Smith at the Princes-Arms in St. Paul's Church-yard, London.

[Undated. The Virtues of several Sovereign Plants found wild in Maryland with Remarks on them.]

Tournefort's Herbal.

1716. The Compleat Herbal: or, the Botanical Institutions of Mr. Tournefort, Chief Botanist to the late French King. Carefully translated from the original Latin. With large Additions, from Ray, Gerard, Parkinson, and others, the most celebrated Moderns; Containing what is further observable upon the same Subject, together with a full and exact Account of the Physical Virtues and Uses of the several Plants; and a more compleat Dictionary of the Technical Words of this Art, than ever hitherto published: Illustrated with about five hundred Copper Plates, containing above four thousand different Figures, all curiously engraven. A Work highly Instructive, and of general Use.

In the Savoy: Printed by John Nutt, and Sold by J. Morphew near Stationers-Hall, and most Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland. 1716.

Joseph Miller.

1722. Botanicum Officinale; or a Compendious Herbal: giving an account of all such Plants as are now used in the Practice of Physick. With their Descriptions and Virtues. By Joseph Miller. London: Printed for E. Bell in Cornhill, J. Senex in Fleet-Street, W. Taylor in Pater-noster-Row, and J. Osborn in Lombard-Street. M.DCC.XXII.

(The book is dedicated to Sir Hans Sloane.)

Patrick Blair.

1723. Pharmaco-Botanologia: or, An Alphabetical and Classical Dissertation on all the British Indigenous and Garden Plants of the New London Dispensatory. In which Their Genera, Species, Characteristick and Distinctive Notes are Methodically described; the Botanical Terms of Art explained; their Virtues, Uses, and Shop-Preparations declared. With many curious and useful Remarks from proper Observation. By Patrick Blair, M.D., of Boston in Lincolnshire and Fellow of the Royal Society. London: Printed for G. Strahan at the Golden Ball over-against the Royal Exchange in Cornhill; W. and J. Innys at the West End of St. Paul's Church-yard; and W. Mears at the Lamb, without Temple Bar. MDCCXXIII.

Elizabeth Blackwell.

1737. A Curious Herbal, Containing Five Hundred Cuts, of the most useful Plants, which are now used in the Practice of Physick. Engraved on folio Copper Plates, after Drawings, taken from the Life. By Elizabeth Blackwell. To which is added a short Description of y e Plants; and their common Uses in Physick. London. Printed for Samuel Harding in St. Martin's Lane. MDCCXXXVII.

1757. Herbarium Blackwellianvm Emendatvm et Anetivm id est Elisabethæ Blackwell Collectio Stirpium Qvæ in Pharmacopoliis ad Medicvm vsvm asservantvr Qvarvm Descriptio et Vires ex Anglico idiomate in Latinvm conversæsistvntvr figuræ maximam partem ad naturale Exemplar emendantvr floris frvctvsqve partivm repræsentatione avgentvr et Probatis Botanicorvm nominibvs cum præfatione Tit. Pl. D.D. Christoph. Iacobi Trew. Excvdit figvras pinxit atqve in æs incidit Nicolavs-Fridericvs Eisenbergervs sereniss. Dvcis Saxo-Hildbvrg. Pictor avlicvs Norimbergæ Degens. Norim bergæ Typis Christiani de Lavnoy Anno MDCCLVII.

Thomas Short.

1747. Medicina Britannica: or a Treatise on such Physical Plants, as are Generally to be found in the Fields or Gardens in Great-Britain: Containing A particular Account of their Nature, Virtues, and Uses. Together with The Observations of the most learned Physicians, as well ancient as modern, communicated to the late ingenious Mr. Ray, and the learned Dr. Sim. Pauli. Adapted more especially to the Occasions of those, whose Condition or Situation of Life deprives them, in a great Measure, of the Helps of the Learned. By Tho. Short of Sheffield, M.D. London. Printed for R. Manby & H. Shute Cox, opposite the Old Baily on Ludgate-Hill. MDCCXLVII.

1748. [A complete History of Drugs. Written in French By Monsieur Pomet, Chief Druggist to the late French King Lewis XIV. To which is added what is farther observable on the same Subject, from Mess Lemery and Tournefort, Divided into Three Classes, Vegetable, Animal, and Mineral; With their Use in Physic, Chemistry, Pharmacy, and several other Arts. Illustrated with above Four Hundred Copper-Cuts, curiously done from the Life; and an Explanation of their different Names, Places of Growth, and Countries where they are produced; with the Methods of distinguishing the Genuine and Perfect, from the Adulterated, Sophisticated and Decayed; together with their Virtues, &c. A Work of very great Use and Curiosity. Done into English from the Originals. London. Printed for J. and J. Bonwicke, S. Birt, W. Parker, C. Hitch, and E. Wicksteed. MDCCXLVIII.]

(The above is dedicated to Sir Hans Sloane.)

James Newton.

1752. A compleat Herbal of the late James Newton, M.D., Containing the Prints and the English Names of several thousand Trees, Plants, Shrubs, Flowers, Exotics, etc. All curiously engraved on Copper-Plates. London: Printed by E. Cave at S. John's Gate; and sold by Mr. Watson, an Apothecary, over-against St. Martin's Church, in the Strand; Mr. Parker, at Oxford; Mr. Sandby, at the Ship, in Fleet-street. M,DCC,LII.

"Sir" John Hill.

1755. The Family Herbal, or an account of all those English Plants, which are remarkable for their virtues, and of the Drugs which are produced by Vegetables of other Countries; with their descriptions and their uses, as proved by experience. Also directions for the gathering and preserving roots, herbs, flowers, and seeds; the various methods of preserving these simples for present use; receipts for making distilled waters, conserves, syrups, electuaries, Juleps, draughts, &c., &c., with necessary cautions in giving them. Intended for the use of families. By Sir John Hill, M.D., F.R.A. of Sciences at Bourdeaux.

Subsequent editions, 1812, 1820.

1756. The British Herbal; An History of Plants and Trees, Natives of Britain, cultivated for use, or raised for beauty. By John Hill, M.D. London. Printed for T. Osborne and J. Shipton, in Grays-Inn; J. Hodges, near London-Bridge; J. Newbery in S. Paul's Church-Yard; B. Collins; And S. Crowder and H. Woodgate, in Pater-noster-Row. MDCCLVI.

1769. Herbarium Britannicum Exhibens Plantas Britanniæ Indigenas secundum Methodum floralem novam digestas. Cum Historia, Descriptione, Characteribus Specificis, Viribus, et Usis. Auctore Johanne Hill, Medicinæ Doctore, Academiæ Imperialis Naturæ Curiosorum Dioscoride quarto, &c. Londini: Sumptibus auctoris. Prostant apud Baldwin, Ridley, Nourse, Becket, Davies, Cambell, Elmsly Bibliopolis. MDCCLXIX.

Timothy Sheldrake.

1759 (circ.). Botanicum Medicinale; An Herbal of Medicinal Plants on the College of Physicians List. Describing their Places of Growth, Roots, Bark, Leaves, Buds, Time of Flowering, Blossoms, Flowers, Stiles, Chives, Embrio's, Fruits, Farina, Colours, Seeds, Kernels, Seed-Vessels, Parts used in Medicine, Preparations in the Shops, Medicinal Virtues, Names in Nine Languages. Most beautifully engraved on 120 Large Folio Copper-Plates, From the Exquisite Drawings of the late Ingenious T. Sheldrake. English Plants are drawn from Nature to the greatest Accuracy, Flowers, or Parts, too small to be distinguished, are magnified. Nothing in any Language exceeds this Thirty Years laborious Work, of which may truly be said that Nature only equals it, every Thing of the Kind, hitherto attempted, being trivial, compared to this inimitable Performance. Designed to promote Botanical Knowledge, prevent Mistakes in the Use of Simples in compounding and preparing Medicines, to illustrate, and render such Herbals as want the Just Representations in their proper Figures and Colour more useful. Necessary to such as practise Physic, Pharmacy, Chemistry, &c., entertaining to the Curious, the Divine and Philosopher, in contemplating these wonderful Productions, - useful to Painters, Heralds, Carvers, Designers, Gardeners, etc. The Colours of every part are minutely described; for Utility it must be esteemed to any Hortus Siccus extant. The Means to preserve Fruits, or to dry Flowers, in their Native Form and Colour are not yet discovered; Plants cannot be preserved to Perfection. The Flowers, when coloured, are represented in their original Bloom, and Fruits in the inviting Charms of Maturity. To which is now added His Tables for finding the Heat and Cold in all Climates, that Exotic Plants may be raised in Summer, and preserved in Winter. London. Printed for J. Millan, opposite the Admiralty, Whitehall.

John Edwards.

1770. The British Herbal containing one hundred Plates of the most beautiful and scarce Flowers and useful Medicinal Plants which blow in the open Air of Great Britain, accurately coloured from Nature, with their Botanical Characters, and A short account of their Cultivation, etc., etc. By John Edwards. London: Printed for the Author; and sold by J. Edmonson, Painter to Her Majesty in Warwick Street, Golden Square; and J. Walter at Homer's Head, Charing-Cross. MDCCLXX.

1775. A select Collection of One Hundred Plates; consisting of the most beautiful exotic and British Flowers which blow in our English Gardens, accurately drawn and Coloured from Nature, with their Botanic Characters, and a short account of their Cultivation, Their uses in Medicine, with Their Latin and English Names. By John Edwards. London: Printed for S. Hooper, No. 25 Ludgate-Hill. M.DCC.LXXV.

William Meyrick.

1789. The New Family Herbal; or Domestic Physician: Enumerating with accurate Descriptions, All the known Vegetables which are any way remarkable for medical efficacy; with an account of their Virtues in the Several Diseases incident to the Human Frame. Illustrated with figures of the most remarkable plants, accurately delineated and engraved. By William Meyrick, Surgeon. Birmingham, Printed by Pearson and Rollason, and Sold by R. Baldwin, Pater-noster Row London. MDCCLXXXIX.

1790. Second edition - Title, etc., identical with above.

Henry Barham.

1794. Hortus Americanus: Containing an account of the Trees, Shrubs, and other Vegetable Productions, of South-America and the West India Islands, and particularly of the Island of Jamaica; Interspersed with many curious and useful Observations, respecting their Uses in Medicine, Diet, and Mechanics. By the late Dr. Henry Barham. To which are added a Linnæan Index, etc., etc., etc. Kingston, Jamaica: printed and published by Alexander Arkman, Printer to the King's most Excellent Majesty, and to the Honourable House of Assembly. MDCCXCIV.

Samuel Stearns - "The American Herbal" (1801)

Available in full from Google Books -

Robert John Thornton.

1810. A Family Herbal: a Familiar Account of the Medical Properties of British and Foreign Plants, also their uses in dying, and the various Arts, arranged according to the Linnæan System, and illustrated by two hundred and fifty-eight engravings from plants drawn from Nature by Henderson, and engraved by Bewick of Newcastle. By Robert John Thornton, M.D., Member of the University of Cambridge, and of the Royal London College of Physicians; Lecturer on Botany at Guy's Hospital; Author of a Grammar of Botany, the Philosophy of Medicine, etc. London: Printed for B. & R. Crosby and Co., Stationer's Court, Ludgate Street.

1814. Second edition.

Jonathan Stokes.

1812. A Botanical Materia Medica, Consisting of the Generic and Specific Characters of the Plants used in Medicine and Diet, with Synonyms, And references to Medical authors, By Jonathan Stokes, M.D. In Four volumes. London, Printed for J. Johnson and Co. St. Paul's Churchyard. 1812. Available in full via google books -

Thomas Green.

1816. The Universal Herbal; or, Botanical, Medical, and Agricultural Dictionary. Containing an account of All the known plants in the World, arranged according to the Linnean System. Specifying the uses to which they are or may be applied, whether as Food, as Medicine, or in the Arts and Manufactures. With the best methods of Propagation, and the most recent agricultural improvements. Collected from indisputable Authorities. Adapted to the use of the Farmer - the Gardener - the Husbandman - the Botanist - the Florist - and Country Housekeepers in General. By Thomas Green. Liverpool. Printed at the Caxton Press by Henry Fisher, Printer in Ordinary to His Majesty. Sold at 87, Bartholomew Close, London.

1824. Second edition.

John Lindley - "Flora Medica; A Botanical Account of all the more important plants used in Medicine, in different parts of the world." (1838)

Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Botany in University College, London; Vice-Secretary of the Horticultural Society, etc. etc. etc. London: Printed for Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, Paternoster-Row. 1838.

Maria Callcott - "A Scripture Herbal" (1842)

Much information on plants that are mentioned in the Bible, their use and distribution in old times. Contains simple woodcut images. This work can be viewed in full on Google Books -

Samuel Frederick Gray - "Gray's supplement to the Pharmacopoeia" (1848)

The intro has an interesting section on the history of medicinal works. Plants are covered at length - p.178-547 - a massive list of species. This work can be viewed in full on Google Books -

Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" (1931)

Maud Grieve was a Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society and President of the British Guild of Herb Growers. Grieve's herbal is still in use among herbalists and considered a valuable reference work. Grieves' Herbal can be read online at

The majority of sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century gardening books devote considerable space to herbs. See especially: -

1563. Thomas Hill. The proffitable Arte of Gardening.

1594. Sir Hugh Platt. The Garden of Eden.

1617. Gervase Markham. The Country Housewife's Garden.

1618. William Lawson. A new Orchard and Garden with the Country Housewife's Garden.

Back to Index

EURPOPEAN LANGUAGE HERBALS (printed) 1495-present

This list includes only the chief works, and those which have some connection with the history of the herbal in England. With the exception of the Arbolayre, copies of all the incunabula herbals mentioned below are to be found in the British Museum. Copies in American libraries are noted in the list.

Bartholomæus Anglicus.

1470. Bartholomæus Anglicus. Liber de proprietatibus rerum. Printed at Basle with the type used by both Richel and Wensler.

1470(?) Liber de proprietatibus rerum Bartholomei Anglici. Printed at Cologne by Ulrich Zell.

Subsequent editions, 1480, 1481, 1482, 1483, 1485, 1488, 1491, 1492, 1519, 1601.

(French translation.)

(A translation was made by Fr. Jehan Corbichon in 1372 for Charles V. of France.)

1482. Cy commence vng tres excellent liure nomme le proprietaire des choses par Fr. Jehan Corbichon. Printed at Lyons.

Subsequent editions printed at Lyons, 1485, 1491, 1498 (?), 1525, 1530 (?), 1539, 1556.

1485. (Dutch translation.) Printed at Haarlem by Jacop Bellaert.

1494. (Spanish translation.) El libro de propietatibus (sic) rerum trasladado de latin en romance por Vincente de burgos.

1529. Another edition printed at Toledo.

Das půch der natur.

1475. Konrad von Megenburg. Das půch der natur. Printed at Augsburg by Hanns Bämler.

(There are a large number of MSS. of the above extant, eighteen of them being in the Vienna library. Eighty-nine herbs and their virtues are described. The woodcuts in this book are exceptionally fine. (There is only one of plants.) In some copies the woodcuts are coloured by a contemporary artist, possibly Bämler himself, for he was well known as an illuminator before he began printing. Though not strictly a herbal, the above is included in this list, as this and Liber de Proprietatibus Rerum are the earliest printed books containing a section on herbs.)

1478. Another edition.

1499. Another edition. Printed at Augsburg by Hanns Schönsperger. Cuts are copies of those in the first edition, with the addition of two others from the Strassburg Hortus Sanitatis of circa 1490.

Albertus Magnus.

1478. Albertus Magnus. Liber aggregationis seu liber secretorum. Alberti Magni de virtutibus herbarum animalium et mirabilis mundi. (Colophon) per Johannem de Annunciata de Augusta.

1500. Edition printed at Rouen by Thomas Laisne.

(This book claims Albertus Magnus as its author, but is wholly unworthy of that great scholar.)

Herbarium Apuleii Platonici.

1480 (circ.). Incipit Herbarium Apuleii Platonici ad Marcum Agrippam. Printed at Rome by Philippus de Lignamine, courtier and physician to Sixtus IV. First impression dedicated to Cardinal de Gonzaga. Second impression to Cardinal de Ruvere. The copy in the British Museum has the Ruvere dedication.

America: Library of Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears, Boston.

The Latin Herbarius.

1484. Herbarius Maguntie impressus. Anno [et] CLXXXIV. Printed at Mainz by Peter Schöffer.

(This is the book sometimes spoken of as Aggregator, but this word was never used as the actual title in any edition. The work is a Compilation from mediæval writers and consists of homely herbal remedies. The figures of plants are pleasing and decorative. The copy in the British Museum is not perfect, but there is a perfect copy in the Kew Library.)

America: Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

1485. Herbarius Pataviæ impressus Anno domi [et] cetera LXXXV. Printed at Passau by Conrad Stahel.

(This edition is sometimes known as Aggregator Patavinus.)

America: John Crerar Library, Chicago.

1486. Another edition printed at Passau.

Undated editions. There are several in the British Museum. It is believed that one of them belonged to Sir Thomas More.

America: J. P. Morgan Library, New York.

1484. (Flemish translation.) Flemish translation printed by John Veldener Kiulenborg.

1500. Edition evidently a reprint of above printed by W. Osterman at Antwerp.

America: Hawkins Collection, Annmary Brown Memorial, Providence.

(Italian editions.)

1491. Edition printed at Vicenza by Leonard of Basel and William of Pavia.

America: Boston Medical Library, Boston.

1499. Edition printed at Venice by Simon of Pavia.

America: Surgeon-General's Library, Washington.

1502. Edition printed at Venice by Christ. de Pensa.

1509. Edition printed at Venice by W. Rubeum et Bernardinum Fratres Vercellenses.

1534. (Italian translation.) Herbolario Volgare nel quale le virtu de la herbe, etc., con alcune belle aggionte noua mētē de latino in Volgare tradulto. Printed at Venice.

Subsequent editions, 1536, 1539, 1540.

(In the Italian editions and translations the book is erroneously attributed to Arnold de Nova Villa, whose name is mentioned on the title-page with that of Avicenna. This error is pointed out in the British Museum Catalogue.)

1485 (circ.) (French edition.) Printed at Paris by Jean Bonhomme.

Herbarius zu teutsch.

1485. Herbarius zu Teutsch. Printed at Mainz by Peter Schöffer.

America: Surgeon-General's Library, Washington, and library of Mrs. Montgomery Sears, Boston.

The illustrations in this herbal are evidently drawn from nature, and are generally held to be only surpassed by those in the herbals of Brunfels and Fuchs. The preface is singularly beautiful. Though the preface enjoins the name "Ortus Sanitatis, in German, a Garden of Health," the title in this and subsequent editions is Herbarius zu teutsch.

1485 (a few months later than the above). Pirated edition printed at Augsburg, probably by Schönsperger. It is interesting to note that in this edition a pine cone, the badge of Augsburg, appears on the title-page. Figures of plants are very inferior to those in the first edition.

1486. Edition printed at Augsburg by Schönsperger.

Subsequent editions, 1487 (?), 1488, 1493, 1496, 1499, 1502. There are several undated editions.

America: Copy of edition printed in 1493 in Library of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia.


1485 (circ.) Arbolayre contenāt la qualitey et virtus proprietey des herbes gômes et simēces extraite de plusiers tratiers de medicine com̄ent davicene de rasis de constatin de ysaac et plateaire selon le con̄u usaige bien correct.

(Supposed to have been printed by M. Husz at Lyons. It is believed that there are now only two copies of this book extant. One is in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. The other was sold in London, March 23, 1898.)

Le Grand Herbier.

Before 1526. Le Grand Herbier en Francoys, contenant les qualites vertus et proprietes des herbes, arbres gommes. Printed at Paris by Pierre Sergent.

Ortus Sanitatis.

1491. Ortus Sanitatis. Printed at Mainz by Jacob Meydenbach.

(This is often regarded as a Latin translation of the Herbarius zu teutsch, but it is much larger and owes very little to that work. The woodcuts are copied from the Herbarius zu teutsch, but they are inferior.)

America: Surgeon-General's Library, Washington; John Crerar Library, Chicago; Arnold Arboretum, Boston; Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears Library, Boston; and J. P. Morgan Library, New York.

1511. Edition printed at Venice.

There are several undated editions.

America: Library of Congress, Washington; Arnold Arboretum, Boston; Surgeon-General's Library, Washington; Dr. G. F. Kunz's Library, New York.

1500 (circ.) (French translation.) Ortus Sanitatis translaté de Latin en francois. Printed at Paris by A. Vérard.

(The copy in the British Museum belonged to Henry VII.)

1539 (?) Edition printed at Paris by Philippe le Noir with the title "Le Jardin de Sante translate de latin en francoys nouvellement Imprime a Paris. On les vend a Paris en la rue sainct Jacques a lenseigne de la Rose blanche couronnee. (Colophon) Imprime a Paris par Philippe le noir."

Aemilius Macer.

1491 (?). Macer floridus De viribus herbarum. Printed at Paris.

1500 (?). Another edition. (Paris?)

1506. Herbarum varias [qui] vis cognoscere vires Macer adest: disce quo duca doct'eris. (Colophon) Impressus Parisius per magistrum Johannem Ieune. Pro Magistro Petro Bacquelier. 1506.

1588. (French translation.) Les fleurs du livre des vertus des herbes, composé jadis en vers Latins par Macer Floride. Le tout mis en François par M. Lucas Tremblay, Parisien ... Rouen.

Jerome of Brunswick.

1500. Liber de arte distillandi de Simplicibus. Johannes Grüeninger, Strassburg. 1500.

(English translation.) See Bibliography of English Herbals.

Johann Czerny.

1517. Kineha lekarska kteraz slowe herbarz. Hieronymous Höltzel. Nürnberg. 1517.

Otto von Brunfels.

1530. Herbarum vivæ eicones ad nature imitationem, sum̄a cum diligentia et artificis effigiate.... Argentorati apud Ioannem Schottum.

Subsequent editions, 1530, 1531, 1532, 1536, 1537.

(The illustrations in this herbal are much superior to the text, which is based chiefly on the writings of the Italian herbalists. Brunfels was a Carthusian monk who turned Protestant. Jacob Theodor (Tabernæmontanus) was a pupil of Brunfels.)

Eucharius Rhodion.

1533. Kreutterbůch von allem Erdtgewachs Anfenglich von Doctor Johan Cuba zusamen bracht Jetzt widerum new Corrigert.... Mit warer Abconterfeitung aller Kreuter.... Zu Franckfurt am Meyn, Bei Christian Egenolph. 1533.

(The above was not an original work, but merely a revised and improved edition of the German Herbarius. The illustrations are copies of those in Brunfels's herbal.)

Iean Ruel.

1536. De Nature stirpium libri tres, Ioanne Ruellio authore.... Parisiis Ex officina Simonis Colinæi. 1536.

(Jean Ruel was a physician and a professor in the University of Paris.)

Leonhard Fuchs.

1542. De historia stirpium effectis & expressis Leonharto Fuchsio.... Basileæ, in officina Isingriniana. Anno Christi 1542.

Subsequent editions, 1546, 1547, 1549, 1551, 1555.

1543. (German translation.) New Kreüterbůch.... Bedruckt zu Basell durch Michael Isingrin.

1557. (Spanish translation.) Historia de yeruas y plantas de Leonardo Fuchsio.... En Anvers por los herederos de Arnald Byrcman.

Conrad Gesner.

1542. Catalogus plantarum.... Authore Conrado Gesnero.... Tiguri apud Christoph Froschouerum.

(Gesner's most important work - a general history of plants - was never published, for he died of plague before it was finished. The illustrations he had collected were published by Christopher Jacob Trew 150 years later.)

Hieronymus Bock.

1546. Kreuter Bůch. Darin Underscheid Würckung und Namen der Kreuter so in Deutschen Landen Wachsen. Wendel Ribel. Strasburg.

Subsequent editions, 1539, 1560, 1572, 1577, 1595, 1630.

(The first edition (1539) has no illustrations. The illustrations in the second edition (1546) are generally supposed to have been copied from Fuchs's Herbal (1542), but many of them are original. Bock's Herbal is remarkable for the accurate descriptions of the plants.)

Rembert Dodoens.

1554. Kruydeboeck.... Rembert Dodoens Medecijn van der stadt van Mechelen. Ghedruckt Tantwerpen by Jan vander Loe.

Subsequent editions, 1563, 1603, 1608, 1618.

1557. (French translation.) Histoire des plantes.... Nouvellement traduite de bas Aleman en François par Charles de l'Escluse. En Anvers De l'Imprimerie de Jean Loë.

1578. (English translation.) See Henry Lyte in Bibliography of English Herbals.

1566. Frumentorum, leguminum, palustrium et aquatilium herbarum aceorum quæ eo pertinent, historia.... Antverpiæ Ex officina Christophori Plantini.

Second edition, 1569.

1568. Florum et Coronarium odoratarumque nonnullarum herbarum historia.... Antverpiæ Ex officina Christophori Plantini.

1583. Remberti Dodonæi mechliniensis medici Cæsarei. Stirpium historiæ pemptades sex sive libri xxx.... Antverpiæ Ex officina Christophori Plantini.

Second edition, 1616.

Pierandrea Mattioli.

1563. Neuw Kreüterbuch ... von dem Hochgelerten und weitberümbten Herrn Doctor Petro Andrea Matthiolo.... Gedruckt zu Prag durch Georgen Delantrich von Auentin.

Subsequent editions ("gemehret unnd verfertigt Durch Joachimum Camerarium"), 1590, 1600.

Antoine Mizauld.

1565. Alexikepus, seu auxiliaris hortus.... Lutetiæ Apud Federicum Morellum.

1575. (German translation.) Artztgartem ... neuwlich verteutschet durch Georgen Benisch von Bartfeld ... zu Basel bey Peter Perna.

Nicolas Monardes.

1569. Dos libros, el veno que trat a de tod as las cosas que traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales.... Impressos en Sevilla en casa de Hernando Diaz, en la calle de la Sierpe.

1571. Segunda parte del libro de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales. Sevilla en casa Alonso Escriuano, Impressor.

1574. Primeray segunda y tercera partes de la Historia medicinal de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales en Medicina.... En Sevilla. En casa de Alonso Escriuano.

Second edition, 1580.

1574. (Latin translation.) De simplicibus medicamentis ex occidentali India delatis quorum in medicina usus est.... Interprete Carolo Clusio Atrebate. Antverpiæ Ex officina Christophori Plantini. Subsequent editions, 1579, 1582, 1605.

1576. (Italian translation.) Due Libri Dell' Historia de I Semplici, Aromati, et altre cose, che Vengono portate dall' Indie Orientali, di Don Garzia Dall' Horto ... et due Altri libri parimente di quelle che si portano dall' Indie Occidentali, di Nicolo Monardes, Hora tutti tradotti dalle loro lingue nella nostra Italiana da M. Annibale Briganti.... In Venetia.

Subsequent editions, 1582, 1589, 1605, 1616.

1600. (Flemish translation.) Beschriivinge van het heerlijcke ende vermaerde Kruydt wassende in de West Indien aldaer ghenaemt Picielt, ende by den Spaenaerden Tabaco, en van desselvē wonderlijcke operatien en̄ Krachtengemaert by D. Monardes Medecijn dez stede Sivillen en̄ overgheset Door Nicolaes Iansz vander Woudt. Tot Rotterdam, By Jan van Waesberghe.

(The title-page has a charming illustration of a little Indian boy smoking a long carved pipe, and a figure of the tobacco-plant.)

1619. (French translation.) Histoire des Drogues.... La seconde composée de deux liures de maistre Nicolas Monard, traictant de ce qui nous est apporté de l'Amerique. Le tout fidellement translaté en François par Antoine Colin, maistre Apoticaire juré de la ville de Lyon.... A Lyon, au despens de Iean Pillehotte, à l'enseigne du nom de Iesus.

(English translation.) See John Frampton's "Bibliography of English Herbals".

1895. (German translation of the 1579 Edition.) Die Schrift des Monardes über die Arzneimittel Americas nach der lateinischen Übertragung des Clusius aus dem Jahre 1579. Übersetzt und erläubert von Kurt Stünzner, Dr. med. Mit einem Vorwort von Prof. Dr. Erich Harnack in Halle a S.

Bombast von Hohenheim (Paracelsus).

1570. [Ettliche Tractatus des hocherfarnen unnd berumbtesten Philippi Theophrasti Paracelsi.... I. Von Natürlichen dingen. II. Beschreibung etlichen Kreütter. III. Von Metallen. IV. Von Mineralen. V. Von Edlen Gesteinen. Strassburg. Christian Müllers Erben.]

(The "doctrine of signatures" is usually associated with the name of Paracelsus, but the greatest exponent of this theory was Giambattista Porta.)

Nicolaus Winckler.

1571. Chronica herbarum, florum seminum.... Authore Nicolao Wincklero, Forchemio, Medico Halæ.... Augustæ Vindelicorum in officina Typographica Michaëlis Mangeri.

(The above is an astrological calendar giving the times when herbs should be gathered.)

Bartholomaus Carrichter.

1575. Kreutterbůch des edlen vn̄ Hochgelehrten Herzen Doctoris Bartholomei Carrichters von Reckingen.... Gedruckt zů Strassburg an Kornmarck bey Christian Müller.

Subsequent editions, 1577, 1589, 1597, 1615, 1618, 1619, 1625, 1652, 1673, 1739.

(In this Herbal every plant is assigned to one of the signs of the zodiac.)

Charles de l'Escluse.

1576. Caroli Clusii atrebat. Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Hispanias obseruatarum historia, Libris duobus expressa.... Antverpiæ, Ex officina Christophori Plantini.

1583. Caroli Clusii atrebatis. Rariorum aliquot Stirpium, per Pannoniam, Austriam & vicinas quasdam Prouincias obseruatarum Historia, Quatuor Libris Expressa: ... Antverpiæ, Ex officina Christophori Plantini.

1601. Caroli Clusii Atrebatis.... Rariorum Plantarum Historica.... Antverpiæ Ex officina Plantiniana Apud Joannem Moretum.

(A republication of the two works cited above with some additional matter.)

For De simplicibus medicamentes ex occidentali India, see N. Monardes.

Mathias de L'Obel.

1576. Plantarum seu stirpium icones. Antverpiæ Ex officina Christophori Plantini.

1581. (Flemish translation.) Kruydtboeck.... Deur Matthias de L'Obel Medecyn der Princ' exc en. T'Antwerpen. By Christoffel Plantyn.

(The Flemish translation is dedicated to William of Orange and the Burgomasters of Antwerp.)

Leonhardt Thurneisser zum Thurn.

1578. Historia sive descriptio plantarum.... Berlini Excudebat Michael Hentzke.

Second edition, 1587.... Coloniæ Agrippinæ apud Joannem Gymnicum.

1578. (German translation.) Historia unnd Beschreibung Influentischer Elementischer und Natürlicher Wirckungen, Aller fremden unnd Heimischen Erdgewechssen ... Gedruckt zu Berlin, bey Michael Hentzsken.

(Thurneisser was one of the foremost exponents of astrological botany. He gives astrological diagrams showing when the various herbs should be picked. The illustrations are not particularly good, but they are attractive owing to the quaint ornamental border which surrounds each figure.)

Andrea Cesalpino.

1583. De plantis libri xvi. Florentiæ Apud Georgium Marescottum.

Geofroy Linocier.

1584. L'histoire des plantes traduicte de latin en françois: ... à Paris Chez Charles Macé.

(The above is based chiefly on the works of Fuchs and Mattioli.)

Castor Durante.

1585. Herbario nuovo di Castore Durante, medico et cittadino romano.... In Roma. Per Iacomo Bericchia & Iacomo Tormerij.

Subsequent editions, 1602, 1617, 1636, 1667, 1684.

1609. Hortulis Sanitatis. Das ist ein heylsam[es] vnd nützliches Gährtlin der Gesundheit.... Erstlich von Castore Durante ... in Italianischer Sprach verfertigt. Nunmehr aber in unsere hoch Teutsche Sprach versetzt, Durch Petrum Uffenbachium Getruckt zu Franckfort am Mayn durch Nicolaum Hoffman.

(It is uncertain whether this is a translation of Herbario nuovo. See Meyer, Gesch., IV. p. 383.)

Jacques d'Aléchamps.

1586-1587. Historia generalis plantarum ... Lugduni, apud Gulielmum Rovillium.

Joachim Camerarius.

1588. Hortus medicus et philosophicus.... Francofurte ad Mœnum.

Giambattista Porta.

1588. Phytognomonica.... Neapoli Apud Horatium Saluianum.

Jacob Theodor (Tabernæmontanus).

1588. Neuw Kreuterbuch.... [Nicolaus Bassæus] Franckfurt am Mayn.

1590. Eicones plantarum seu stirpium. Nicolaus Bassæus, Francofurte ad Mœnum.

1613. Neuw Vollkommentlich Kreuterbuch ... gemehret Durch Casparum Bauhinum.... Franckfurt am Mayn, Durch Nicolaum Hoffman. In verlegung Johannis Bassæi und Johann Dreutels.

Subsequent editions, 1625, 1664, 1687, 1731.

Fabio Colonna.

1592. PHYTOBASANOS (ΦΥΤΟΒΑΣΑΝΟΣ ) sive plantarum aliquot historia.... Ex officina Horatii Saluiana. Neapoli. Apud Io Jacobum Carlinum & Antonium Pacem.

(This Herbal is the first in which copper-plate etchings were used as illustrations.)

Adam Zaluziansky von Zaluzian.

1592. Methodi herbariæ, libri tres. Pragæ, in officina Georgii Dacziceni.

Gaspard Bauhin.

1596. PHYTOPINAX ( ΦΥΤΟΠΙΝΑΞ ) seu enumeratio plantarum ab Herbarijs nostro seculo descriptarum, cum earum differentijs.... Basileæ per Sebastianum Henric petri.

1601. Animadversiones in historiam generalem plantarum Lugduni editam.... Francoforti Excudebat Melchior Hartmann, Impensis Nicolai Bassæi.

1620. PRODROMOS ( ΠΡΟΔΡΟΜΟΣ ) Theatri Botanici.... Francofurti ad Mœnum, Typis Pauli Jacobi, impensis Ioannis Treudelii.

Second edition, 1671.

1623. PINAX ( ΠΙΝΑΞ ) Theatri Botanici.... Basileæ Helvet. Sumptibus et typis Ludovici Regis.

1658. Caspari Bauhini ... Theatri Botanici sive Historiæ Plantarum.... Liber primus editus opera et cura Io Casp Bauhini. Basileæ. Apud Joannem König.

Claude Duret.

1605. Histoire admirable des plantes et herbes esmeruillables & miraculeuses en nature.... A Paris Chez, Nicolas Buon demeurant au Mont S. Hylaire à l'image S. Claude.

Jean Bauhin and J. H. Cherlerus.

1619. J. B.... et J. H. C.... historiæ plantarum generalis ... prodromus ... Ebroduni, Ex Typographia Societatis Caldorianæ.

1650-51. Historia plantarum universalis. Auctoribus Johanne Bauhino, Archiatro. Joh. Henrico Cherlero Doctore: Basiliensibus Quam recensuit et auxit Dominicus Chabræus. D. Genevensis Juris vero publici fecit. Fr. Lud. a Graffenried.... Ebroduni.

Johann Poppe - "Kräuter Buch" (1625) - Leipzig, In Verlegung Zachariæ Schürers und Matthiæ Götzen.

Guy de la Brosse.

1628. De la nature, vertu et utilité des plantes. Divisé en cinq livres.... Par Guy de la Brosse, Conseiler & Medecin ordinaire du Roy. A Paris Ches Rollin Barragnes, au second pillier de la grand' Salle du Pallais.

(This Herbal is dedicated to Cardinal Richelieu. It is the only Herbal with mottoes on the title-page - "Chasque chose a son ciel et ses astres"; "En vain la medicine sans les plantes"; "De l'Esperance la connaisance.")

Antonio Donati.

1631. Trallato de semplici ... in Venetia ... Appresso Pietro Maria Bertano.

Petrus Nylandt.

1670. De Nederlandtse Herbarius of Kruydt-Boeck ... t'Amsterdam Voor Marcus Doornick.

(The original drawing for the frontispiece by G.v.d. Eeckhout is in the Print room of the British Museum.)

1678. Neues Medicinalisches Kräuterbuch ... Osnabrück bey Joh. Georg Schwandern.

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Bartholomaeus Anglicus - "De proprietatibus rerum" (1482) Latin printed version of Bartholomaeus Anglicus. Liber XVII (17) "De arboris et plantis" ("Of trees and plants") is on herbs and is available in full on Google Books -

Arnaldus (de Villanova) - Inicipit Tractatus de virtutibus herbarum (1499) Latin printed version of this popular medieval herbal, which had already been printed in Italian. Available in full on Google Books -

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Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (1552 A.D.) The "Little Book of the Medicinal Herbs of the Indians" is an ancient Aztec herbal. It was translated from the 1552 Nahuatl original of Martín de la Cruz into Latin by Juan Badiano. It was translated into English in 1939 by William Gates; however the names of the plants are still in the original language, leaving uncertainty as to their identity. Weird concoctions abound, some of which sound quite ghastly - and some of the ingredients proposed by the Aztec herbal are at first confusing - such as "dragon's blood" for example: However we learn from Hernandez "Rerum Medicarum" (next) that "dragon's blood" was a nickname for a tree - Ezquahuitl - with red sap. Could this be the "Sangre de Draco" of today? Seems likely. [6][7]

Francisco Hernández - "Rerum Medicarum" (1615 A.D.) Francisco Hernández was sent from Spain to study "New Spain" - now Mexico. Researching from indigenous sources, in addition to the extensive botanical gardens of the Aztecs, he compiled the Rerum Medicarum, a work listing some 1200 plants. [1]

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Shennong pen Ts'ao ching (c.2700 B.C.) According to legend, this "Great Herbal" of ancient China is dated to 2700 B.C. and was composed by the Emperor Shennong, the founder of Chinese herbal medicine. The earliest surviving copy dates to around 500 A.D. and contains descriptions of 365 herbs. Most of the remedies prescribed in old traditional Chinese medicine texts were plant-based. [1]

Bencao Gangmu (1578 A.D.) Regarded as the most comprehensive text ever written on traditional Chinese medicine, the Bencao Gangmu, written in the time of the Ming Dynasty by Li Shizhen, lists not only all the plants but also animal and mineral preparations believed to have medicinal properties. This work, also known n English by the name "Compendium of Materia Medica", consists of 53 volumes and it is stated that Li Shihzen gathered information from 800 other medical texts, and performed 30 years of field study before completing the work. The Bencao Gangmu lists an incredible 1,892 herbs. [5]

Handbook of Traditional Drugs (1941 AD)

Out of 517 remedies listed, 442 are plant based. [b]

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MANUSCRIPT HERBALS (9th-16th cent)

The subject of medieval herbals is vast and labyrinthine. As works were copied by hand, and herbals were often compiled from other herbals, a massive volume of material exists. Not only this, but much has been lost and much is incomplete.

This section is at present comprised of the large list copied from Eleanour Sinclair Rohde's "The Old English Herbals" of 1922.

Also see " The Herbal in Antiquity and its Transmission to Later Ages". By Charles Joseph Singer. (1927)

9th (?) century. Liber dialogorum Gregorii cum libro medicinali in duabus partibus quarum altera tractat de virtutibus herbarum et "Herbarium" vulgo dicitur altera de virtutibus lapidum.

Hutton 76. Bodleian.

(This is the translation of Gregory's Dialogues made by Bishop Werefirth of Worcester. The MS. formerly belonged to Worcester Cathedral.)

10th century (Lacnunga). Liber medicinalis de virtutibus herbarum.

Harleian 585. British Museum.

10th century. S. Columbarii Epist. versibus Adonicis scripta. Ad frontem prima paginæ hujus codicis scribuntur manu contemporanea quæ dam de virtutibus herbarum et versiculi nonnuli.

Harleian 3091. British Museum.

10th century. Leech Book of Bald.

Royal 12 D. British Museum.

11th century. Peri Didaxeon. (Saxon translation.)

Harleian 6258. British Museum.

11th century. Herbarium Apuleii Platonici quod accepit ab Ascolapio.

Cott. Vit. C. III. British Museum.

11th century. Incipiunt Capites (capita) libri medicinalis.

Payne 62. Bodleian.

(This is a version of Herbarium Apuleii Platonici.)

11th (?) century. De herba Betonica. Apuleius or Antonius Musa.

CLXXXIX. Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

11th century. Herbarium Apuleius.

Ashmole 1431.

11th (?) century. Herbarium Apuleius.

CLXXX. Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

(This copy once belonged to John Holyngborne.)

11th century. Incipiunt nomina multarum rerum Anglice.

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

(In the list occurs Nomina herbarum.)

12th (?) century. Dioscorides de virtutibus herbarum.

Jesus College, Cambridge.

(Formerly at Durham.)

12th century. Exceptiones de libro Henrici de herbis variis.

Digby 13 (VIII). Bodleian.

(The above was compiled, according to Leland and others, by Henry of Huntingdon.)

12th century. Herbarium Apuleius.

Harleian 4986. British Museum.

12th century. Herbarium Apuleius.

Harleian 5294. British Museum.

12th century. De virtutibus herbarum.

Sloane 1975. British Museum.

Late 12th century. Imago Medici Conjurantis Herbas.

Harleian 1585. British Museum.

12th century. De viribus herbarum.

Harleian 4346. British Museum.

(In verse, commonly ascribed to Macrus.)

12th century. Macer de viribus herbarum.

Sloane 84. British Museum.

12th century. De viribus herbarum. Liber Omad.

Digby 13 (VII). Bodleian.

(It is not known who Omad was.)

12th century. Macer de virtutibus herbarum.

Digby 4 (XI). Bodleian.

(The last folio is in thirteenth-century hand.)

12th century. Macer de virtutibus herbarum.

Library of Lincoln Cathedral.

12th century. Herbarium Apuleius.

Library of Eton College.

12th or 13th century. De negociis specierum. Inc. circa instans negocium in simplicibus.

Trinity College, Cambridge.

13th century. Epistola antonii muse ad agrippam de herba betonica.

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

13th century. Antonii Musæ libellus de virtutibus herbæ betonicæ.

Ashmole 1462 (VIII). Oxford.

13th century. [Synopsis libelli Antonii Musæ.]

Ashmole 1462 (II).

13th century. Synopsis Herboralii Apuleii.

Ashmole 1462 (III).

13th century. Herboralium Apuleii Platonis.

Ashmole 1462 (IX).

(The names of the herbs are given in English in rubric by a hand of the fourteenth century.)

13th century. Herbarium apuleii platonici.

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

13th century. Aemilii Macri de viribus Herbarum.

Royal 12 B. British Museum.

13th century. Aemilii Macri Carmen de viribus herbarum.

Ashmole (1398. II. v).

13th century. Liber Macri de viribus Herbarum.

Ee. VI. 39. II. Cambridge University Library.

Late 13th century. Aemilii Macri de Herbarum viribus.

(Formerly belonged to St. Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury.)

Royal 12 E. XXIII. (III). British Museum.

Late 13th century. Liber Macri de Naturis herbarum.

Kk. IV. 25. (XVI). Cambridge University Library.

13th (?) century. Liber Macri de viribus herbarum.

438 (III). Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

13th century. De simplicibus medicinis.

505 (II. 2). Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

13th century. Poema de virtutibus herbarum macro vulgo adscriptum.

Arundel 283 (I). British Museum.

13th century. Aemilius Macri (Fragment).

Library of Lord Clifden, Lanhydrock, Cornwall.

13th century. Le livre de toutes herbes appele "Circa instans."

Sloane 1977. British Museum.

13th century. Le livre de toutes herbes appele "Circa instans."

Sloane 3525. British Museum.

Incipit [liber de simplicibus medicinis ordine alphabetico qui appellatur] "Circa Instans" Platearii.

Ashmole 1428 (II).

Late 13th century. Circa Instans.

All Souls College, Oxford.

13th century. De medicinis simplicibus sive de virtutibus Herbarum libellus.

Balliol College, Oxford.

Late 13th century. De simplicibus medicinis.

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

13th-14th century. Liber cogitanti michi de virtute simplicium medianarum.

Trinity College, Cambridge.

13th-14th century. Herbarium.

Addit. 22636 (XIII). British Museum.

13th-15th century. [Lines on the virtues of the scabious plant.]

Addit. 33381 (XXXVIII). British Museum.

Late 13th century. De collectione herbarum.

Arundel 369 (II). British Museum.

13th century. De Naturis Herbarum.

Royal 8c IX. (X). British Museum.

(From St. Mary's, Reading.)

13th century. De virtutibus herbarum rhythmice.

Sloane 146 (III). British Museum.

13th century. Præfatiuncula in totum præsens volumen.

Inc. In hoc continentur libri quattuor medicine Ypocrates Platonis Apoliensis urbis de diversis herbis.

Ashmole 1462 (I).

Late 13th century. Hic sunt virtutes scabiose distincte.

Digby 86 (LXXXV). Bodleian.

13th (?) century. De proprietate herbarum.

Laud Latin 86 (XIII). Bodleian.

13th-14th century. Liber qui vocatur "Circa Instans."

Peterhouse College, Cambridge.

13th-14th century. Circa instans Platearii.

Trinity College, Cambridge.

13th-14th century. Versus de Ysope (Hyssop).

Harleian 524 (CLXI). British Museum.

Circ. 1300. De herba Basilisca seu Gentiana.

Harleian 2851 (XXIX). British Museum.

(Written in England.)

13th century. Beginning of a history of trees and plants which ends abruptly on page 3.

Harleian 4751. British Museum.

Late 13th-14th century. [Verses - including 19 lines on various herbs.]

Royal 12 c. VI. (VI). British Museum.

(Belonged to Bury St. Edmunds Abbey.)

Circ. 1360-70. Le liure de herberie en français qui est apele "Circa Instans," translated from Johannes Platearius, De simplici medicina.

Bodley 76 I. Bodleian.

14th century. MS. on the virtues of herbs.

Library of Eton College.

14th century. Macri pœma de Viribus herbarum; præmittitur tabula.

Harleian 2558 (XXIV). British Museum.

14th century. De viribus herbarum pœma.

Sloane 420 (XL). British Museum.

14th century. De viribus herbarum.

Rawl. C. 630. British Museum.

14th century. Macer de virtutibus herbarum.

Sloane 340 (XV). British Museum.

14th century. De virtutibus herbarum.

Digby 95. Bodleian.

Early 15th (?) century. Macer. Of virtues of herbis.

Hutton 29. Bodleian.

14th century. Aemilii Macri de Herbarum viribus.

Royal 12 B. III (I). British Museum.

14th century. Aemilii Macri Carmen de viribus medicinalibus herbarum cum nominibus earum Anglia explicatis.

Ashmole 1397 (E. XV). Oxford.

14th century. Macer de viribus herbarum.

Ff. VI. 53 (X). Cambridge University Library.

14th century. Macer de Herbarum viribus.

36 (I. i). Emmanuel College, Cambridge.

Early 14th century. Aemilius Macer. Carmen de viribus herbarum.

Arundel 225 (II). British Museum.

14th century. De viribus herbarum.

Harleian 3353 (I). British Museum.

14th century. [De virtutibus Ros marine in English.]

759 (XI). Trinity College, Cambridge.

14th century. Herbal in alphabetical order with descriptions.

Arch. Selden 335. Bodleian.

14th century. On simples. Latin and English.

1398 (III). Trinity College, Cambridge.

Late 14th century. Herbarium.

C. XIII (IV). St. John's College, Oxford.

14th century. Here begynnyt a tretys of diverse herbis and furst of Bytayne (Old English poem of 43 couplets).

Begins -

"To tellyn of bytayne I have grete mynde
And sythen of othur herbys os I fynde.
Furst at bytayne I wyl begynne
Yat many vertues berys wt inne."

Last line -

"Yche stounde whyle it mai on erthe be founde."

Ashmole 1397 (II-IV).

Early 14th century. Experimenta Alberti Magni de herbis lapidibus et animalibus.

Addit. 32622. British Museum (III).

14th century. Secreta fratris Alberti de Colonia ordinis fratrum predicatorum super naturis quarundum herbarum et lapidum et animalium in diversis libris philosophorum reperta et in unum collecta.

Digby 147 (XXIV). Bodleian.

14th century. Secreta fratris Alberti ordinis fratrum predicatorum (i) de herbis xvi (ii) de lapidibus (iii) de animalibus (xviii).

Digby 153 (IX). Bodleian.

14th century. Bartholomæus Anglicus de proprietatibus rerum.

Royal 12 E. III. British Museum.

14th century. Bartholomæi Mini de Senis Tractatus de herbis figuris quam plurimis coloratiō instructus.

Egerton 747 I. British Museum.

14th century. ? Gardener. Of the virtues of the herb rosemary, etc.

In the Earl of Ashburnham's library at Ashburnham Place. 122 (2. II).

14th century. Diversitates herbarum omnium que ad medicinas pertinent.

Addit. 29301 (III). British Museum.

(The above has fine pen-and-ink drawings of 68 English wild plants, with their names written in English. The MS. belonged to the Countess of Hainault, Philippa, Queen of England, and, lastly, to Mr. Pettiford.)

14th century. Herbal.

Dd. VI. 29. VII. University Library, Cambridge.

14th (?) century. List of herbs: English names also given.

198 (III). Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

(The above once belonged to John Argenteux, Provost of King's.)

14th (?) century. A list of remedies with English equivalents and marginal additions in another hand.

200. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

14th century. [Recipes in Physicke] Glossary containing many herbs.

Pepys Library 1661. Magdalene College, Cambridge.

14th century. Here begynneth medecines gode for divers euelys on mennes bodys be callen erchebysschopes auicenna and ypocras Icoupon̄ (? cophon) i. e. de and on hole materie aȝen brouȝt and ferst of herbis.

Pepys Library 1661. Magdalene College, Cambridge.

(Various simples are described. After the "vertues of rose maryne" a series of sections in verse written as prose beginning "I wil ȝou tellyn by & bi as I fond wretyn in a book. Þat in borwyng I be took of a gret ladyes prest þat of gret name þe mest." The following sections are on centaurea, solsequium, celidonia, pipernella, materfemia, mortagon, pervinca, rosa, lilium, egrimonye. Ends "Oyle of mustard seed is good for ache and for litarge and it is mad on þe same maner.")

Circ. 1400. A treatise in rhyme on the virtues of herbs.

Sloane 147 (V). British Museum.

It begins -

"Of erbs xxiiij I woll you tell by and by
Als I fond wryten in a boke at I in boroyng toke
Of a gret ladys preste of gret name she barest
At Betony I wol begyn at many vertuos het within."

14th century. De virtutibus herbarum quarundam.

Ashmole 1397.

(On the medical uses of some herbs. Begins, "Bytayne and wormewode is gode for woundes.")

14th (?) century. List of names of herbs in Latin and English.

1377 II. Trinity College, Cambridge.

Begins, "Apium Commune Smalache."

1352. De preperacione herbarum. A treatise on the medicinal qualities of and modes of preparing herbs, quoting Serapion. A short list giving first the Latin and then the Irish name, etc.

23 F. 19. Royal Irish Academy.

14th century. Vocabulary of herbs in Latin and Welsh.

Addit. 14912. British Museum.

14th century. Meddygon myddfai or the Practice of Physic of the Myddvai Doctors: a collection of Recipes for various diseases and injuries, prognostics, charms, virtues of herbs, etc., by the physicians of Myddvai co. Caermarthen.

Addit. 14912 (I). British Museum.

(In Welsh.)

14th century. Nomina herbarum. Latin and English.

Addit. 17866. British Museum.

14th century. De virtutibus herbæ.

Arundel 507. British Museum.

(The above once belonged to Richard Seybrok, a monk of Durham.)

14th-15th century. Nomina quarundam ... plantarum arborum.

Harleian 210 (XI). British Museum.

(In French and English.)

14th-15th century. Names of herbs in Latin and English.

Harleian 2558 (I). British Museum.

14th century. Herbal. Latin and English.

(Directions in gathering herbs, flowers, roots, etc.)

Sloane 2584. British Museum.

14th century. Liber cinomorum (synonomorum) de nominibus herbarum.

(Latin, French, English.)

Bodleian 761.

1360-70. Nomina herbarum. (Latin, French, English.)

Bodleian 761 (VI. B.).

Two texts from this MS. were published by E. Mannele Thompson, Chronicon Galpedi de Baker de Swynebroke. Clarendon Press, 1889. He gives a list of the contents of this volume, calling this item fol. 158, "Medicinal notes from Roger Bacon in Latin." Interpolated by fifteenth-century writer in spaces left vacant by the fourteenth-century scribe are many recipes and much astrology.

14th century. Virtues of rosemary in prose and verse.

Digby 95 (VII). Bodleian.

14th century. Of the virtues of herbs.

Digby 95 (VIII). Bodleian.

Late 14th century. Herbarium Anglo-Latinum, with many recipes interpolated in a later hand.

MS. Grearerd. Bodleian.

Late 14th century. Names of herbs in alphabetical order with a few English interpolations. The MS. comes from Llanthony Priory and was given by R. Marchall.

312 (X). Library of Lambeth Palace.

14th century. De simplici medicina John Platearius.

(This MS. is supposed to have belonged to the Countess of Hainault and subsequently to Queen Philippa of Hainault.)

Addit. 29301 (IV). British Museum.

14th century. Nomina Herbarum Medicinalium, with some English and French names.

Phillipps MS. 4047 (II) now in the library of T. Fitzroy Fenwick, Esq., Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham.

14th century. Here ben the virtues of Rosemarye (purporting to be taken from "the litel boke that the scole of Sallerne wroat to the Cuntasse of Henowd and sche sente the copie to hir douȝter Philip the quene of England").

Inc. "Rosemarye is boþe tre and herbe hoot and drie."

Exp. "Wasche him þerwiþ and he schal be hool."

Royal 17 A. III. (III). British Museum.

1373. Translation of Macer De viribus herbarum by John Lelamour, Schoolmaster of Hereford.

Sloane 5. British Museum.

14th century. Particulars of simples arranged under the various months.

754. Trinity College, Cambridge.

14th century. A herbal in Latin and English beginning with Allium.

(Given by Thomas Gale Dean of York.)

759 (VII). Trinity College, Cambridge.

15th century. Aemili Macri de virtutibus herbarum. The names of the plants are explained in English in the margins, and there are also some remedies in English.

Ashmole 1481 (III).

15th century. Macer. De Virtutibus Herbarum. The English names of the herbs are also given. (Written by Nicholas Kyrkeby of Saint Albans.)

VI. 15. Bishop Cosin's Library, Durham University.

15th century. Herbal in three books.

Inc. "Mogworte or brotheworte ys clepid archemisia ... and this medicine ys a nobil medycyne."

Ends, "Here endeth the third part of Macer. And here begynneth a fewe herbes which Macer foryete noȝt nor thei ben nort founden in his book."

Addit. 37786 (II). British Museum.

15th century. The treatise of Macer intitled "De viribus Herbarum," translated into English.

"Here followeth the cunnynge and sage clerk Macer tretynge and opynly shewy th the vertuys worthy and Commendable propyrtes of many & dyuerse herbys and her vertuys of the whyche the firste is mugworte or modirworte."

Sloane 393. British Museum.

15th century. The vertuys of Erbys aftyr Galyon Ypocras and Socrates.

Lansdowne 680 I. British Museum.

15th century. Here folwythe the vertu of Erbis. Isop is hoot and drie in ij degreis so seith Ipocrace if a man drynke it fastynge.

Ashmole 1477 (III-IV).

15th century. Aemilius Macer. Of the virtues of herbs. English translation.

Sloane 140. British Museum.

15th century. Aemilius Macer. Of the virtues of herbs. English translation.

Sloane 2269. British Museum.

15th century. Aemilius Macer. De virtutibus Herbarum. English translation.

In the library of the Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney at Didlington Hall, Norfolk.

15th century. List of herbs in Latin and English.

Sloane 3548. British Museum.

15th century. Herbal.

Inc. "Of herbys now I
Will you telle by and by.
As I fynde wryten in a boke
That in borrowyng I betoke
Of a gret ladyes preste," etc.
Expl. "It dryveth away all foul moysteris
  And distroyeth venym and wykyd humours
  It distroyeth the morfew
  And dispoyling to the leper."

Dd. X. 44 (VIII). Cambridge University Library.

15th century. An Herbary þe whiche ys draw out of Circa Instans and hyt towcherþ schortlyche þ e principal vertuys and þ e special effectes of herbis and droggis þ t be þ e most comyne in use, and her dyvers grees of qualites or yher complexions and her propur and most special kynd of worcheyng.

(At the end of every alphabetical division of this work is left a page or more, blank, for the purpose of inserting additional matter. There are several additions by old hands. Some additions on the margins have been torn off.)

Ashmole 1443 (IV).

15th century. Treatise on herbs. 169 chapters, with table of Contents prefixed.

Inc. "Agnus castus is a herbe that men clep Tutsayne or Park levis."

Arundel 272 (II). British Museum.

15th century. An Herbal. Arranged alphabetically to the letter P.

Inc. "Agnus castus is an herbe," etc. Breaks off in "pulegium rurale." (Other copies - both ending with S - are in Addit. 4698, f. 16b, and Arundel 272, f. 36.)

Royal 18 A. VI. (VI). British Museum.

15th century. A treatise on the virtues of Herbs; beginning "Agnus castus ys Anglice herbe that men cally the tutsayne or ells parkelenus."

Ashmole 1432 (V. i).

Mid 15th century. Herbal with book of recipes.

Inc. "Agnus castus is an herbe."

Bodleian 463 (A).

15th century. Liber de Herbarum virtutibus.

Inc. "Agnus castus ys an herbe that cleepeth Toussane."

Laud Misc. 553 (i). Bodleian.

15th century. An Herbal with the properties of the different herbs in alphabetical order, with a table prefixed.

Inc. "Agnus castus ys an herbe that me clapys Tustans or Porke levys."

329. Balliol College, Oxford.

15th (?) century. "An English Herbal."

Begins, "Agnus Castus," etc.

Harleian 3840 (II). British Museum.

15th century. A treatise on the virtues of herbs.

Begins, "A bed ymade of Agnus Castus."

Sloane 297 (XVIII). British Museum.

15th century. Latin-English dictionary of herbs.

Inc. "Alleluya Wodsoure stubwort."

Expl. "Quinquefolium fyveleved gras."

Dd. XI. 45 (XII). Cambridge University Library.

15th century. A book of the medical virtues of herbs, described in alphabetical order.

Inc. "Anet ys an herbe that ys clepyt anet oþer dylle."

Expl. "doyth a way the fowȝe or the fragelys."

Ashmole 1447 (IV. i).

15th century. "Yes ben y e vertuse of betayn."

Ashmole 1438 (II. vii).

15th century. A treatise of the virtues of certain herbs. Begins, "Betaigne is hot and drie in þre degrees, and so seyth Ypocras, and it is an herbe of many faire vertues."

Ashmole 1438 (XXV).

15th century. Aemilius Macer. De virtutibus herbarum. (In French, Latin and English.)

Digby 29 (XXXVII). Bodleian.

15th century. Of the virtues of herbs - seemingly out of Macer. The following verse is prefixed:

"This booke ys drawe be fesyke
That Macer made for hem that ben seeke
The vertu of herbis hēt descrieth ryght wel
And help of mannys helthe every del."

Sloane 963 (XVIII). British Museum.

15th century. Macer on the virtues of herbs.

Inc. "Mugworte or brotheworte is clepid Arthemisia."

Exp. "drynkys juse of thys erbe."

Ee. I. 15 (IIIa). University Library, Cambridge.

15th century. Macer. "Vertues worthe & commendable propertees of many & diverse herbes." In three books.

Rawl. C. 81 (V). Bodleian.

15th century. Part of the poem De virtutibus Herbarum. The English names of plants are occasionally given in the margin. In the volume containing Froucestre's History of the Monastery.

Library of Gloucester Cathedral.

15th century. A treatise of the medical properties of herbs and other simples; arranged alphabetically, being a translation from the treatise of Johannes Platearius, De medicinis simplicibus.

Sloane 706 (IV). British Museum.

15th century. English Herbal, Secundum magistrum Gilbertum Kemor, arranged alphabetically.

Sloane 770. British Museum.

15th century. Of the virtues of Rosmaryne.

Inc. "Rosmaryne is both tre and erbe."

Sloane 7 (VI). British Museum.

15th century. The virtues of Rosmaryn.

Inc. "Rosmaryn is bothe tre and herbe."

Sloan 962 (VI). British Museum.

15th century. These ben sum of þe vertues of Rosemary, as the Clerke of Sallerne seyde and wrote tho the Cowntes of Hynde, and sche sende hem tho here dowȝtur Phylype þ t was weddyde tho þe Kyng of Engelond.

Inc. "Rosmary ys bothe tre and herbe."

Ashmole 1438 (II-XX).

15th (?) century. This is ye lityl boke of ye vertuys of rosmaryn yt y e scole of Salerne gaderyd & compiled at instance of ye Cowntese of Henowde.... I danyel bain translatyd into vulgar ynglysch worde for werde as fonde in latyn. (The translator adds that before 1432 Rosemary was unknown in England and that it was first sent from the Countess of Hainault to her daughter Queen Philippa.)

1037 (1) (XIV). Trinity College, Cambridge.

15th or early 16th century. The medical virtues of Rosemary in prose. Begins, "Rosus marinus is called rose mary, the virtue of this herbe is goode." Ends, "ne brennyng of unkynd hete be at þi stomake ne at þ e hert." (At the foot of page 3 is written "Robert Hychys is the ower of thys boke.")

Ashmole 1379 (I).

15th century. Here is vertues and seltyng of Rosmary by the ij doctours of fysyk followyng. per Galyen and Platery, and a poem beginning "As in a booke wretyne y fownd Of wise doctours in dyvers lond."

Ashmole 1379 (II).

15th century. Here follwyth y e wertues off ye rosses mare.

Inc. "Take rosmare and bynd hem ynne a lynnene clothe."

Exp. "Allsso make a bathe off ye floure and y t wyll make ye yonglyche."

Ashmole 1432 (V. iii).

15th century. The vertu of rose mary. Tak þe flower of þe rose mary and bynd hem.

(The above is part of a series of herbal notes, etc., interspersed by a later hand in the course of and following on a fifteenth-century book of medicine.)

Ashmole 1391 (VIII).

15th century. "Here men may see þe vertus of dyuerse herbes, whiche ben hoot and whiche ben coold, and to how many þinges they arne goode." (Other copies are in Sloane 393, f. 13; 1592, f. 39b; 3466, f. 78; Addit. 12056, f. 3; Lansdowne MS. 680, f. 2 and 17 B., XLVIII, f. 2, where, however, the arrangement is somewhat different. On page 2 there is the entry, "This is John Rice is boke, the which cost him xxv d.")

15th century. "Here men may se the vertu of dyverse herbes, and what thei be, and whiche ben hoote and which ben colde. And for howgh many thynges they ben goode."

(This MS. ends abruptly in "Calamynte.")

Ashmole 1444 (I. iii).

15th (?) century. "The virtues of diuerse herbes which ben hoote and which ben coolde." (With a large table of Contents prefixed.)

Sloane 393 (I). British Museum.

15th century. Treatise on the virtues of herbs. Begins, "Aristologia rotunda. The virtue of this herbe os Ypocras says."

Sloane 962 (XII). British Museum.

15th century. An Herbary or alphabetical Materia Medica of herbs & other drugs; beginning with Aloen, Aloes, Aurum, and ending with Zelboarium.

Inc. "Aloen. To purge fleume and malancoly and colore."

Exp. "Zelboarium. To moysten and to norschen and to clensen and wyth cold þinges to akelen. Amen."

Ashmole 1481 (II. ii).

15th century. An alphabeticall catalogue of Herbes.

Inc. "Aloen hath virtue to purge flewne."

Ee. I. 13 (I). Cambridge University Library.

15th century. A collection of remedies in English (with additions in other handwritings). Begins with "Aloe" and ends with "verveyn."

609 (II). Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

15th century. In Latin and English. Herbal. Aloe - Zucarium, with notes on Egrimonia, Acacia, in Latin, and on Cassia lignea and Castorium in English.

43. Jesus College, Cambridge.

15th century. The makynge of oyles of divers herbys.

905 (II. 4). Trinity College, Cambridge.

15th century. These ben the precious watris & vertuous for diverse ejvellys.

Inc. "Water of wormode is gode ... grete lordes among the Saracens usen to drink hitt."

Addit. 37786 (I). British Museum.

15th century. Of the Herb Moon-wort.

Inc. "I schal you tel of an Erbe þat men cal Lunarie,
He ys clepit Asterion; wych ys an Erbe þat men calleth Lunarie."

Harleian 2407 (IX). British Museum.

15th century. Virtues of the onion, garlic and pennyroyal.

Begins, "Here beeth þe vertues of the Oynoun."

Royal 17 B. XLVIII. (II). British Museum.

15th century. Miscellaneous recipes and extracts from herbals.

Begins, "Rosa rebia [sic] ys an herbe that men clepyth rede rosys."

Royal 18 A. VI. (VII). British Museum.

15th (?) century. A treatise of herbs and the several medicaments compounded from them.

Begins, "The roose as saith the philosopher Plinius hath doble verteus."

Sloane 67 (II). British Museum.

15th century. A treatise of herbs, alphabetically arranged. (Imperfect.)

Begins, "Carabana id est wylde hempe."

Sloane 297 (I). British Museum.

15th century. A treatise of the temperature and virtues of simples alphabetically arranged.

Sloane 965 (VII). British Museum.

15th century. "Here men may se the vertues of herbes."

Bodley 463 (B. iii).

15th century. Liber de herbarum virtutibus.

Inc. "Here may men se the vertu of herbes which ben hot and which ben colde."

Laud Misc. 553 (II). Bodleian.

15th century. Vertues of Herbes.

Inc. Apium is an herbe that men call smallache or marche.

Addit. A. 106 (A. IV). Bodleian.

15th century. "Here begynnythe to mak waters of erbys sondry and þer vertues and howe þei schalle be made in stillatorie."

Inc. "In þe fyrst of dyl. The water is of gret vertue."

Ashmole 141 B (II. v).

15th century. Instructions for the proper time of gathering simples by name.

Inc. "Medysines ben done, some by leves [som] bi sedis, som by flowres and some bi fretes."

Ashmole 1481 (II. iii). Oxford.

15th century. The medical use "Of waters distilled from Sundry plants & flowers."

(The above belonged to Richard Saunders, the Astrologer.)

Ashmole 1489 (II. ii).

15th century. Alphabetical Herbary.

Inc. "Agrymonia is an herbe."

Bodley 463 (B. ii).

Late 15th century. Virtues of herbs.

Inc. "Here a man maye see."

Selden, supra 75 (E. VI). Bodleian.

Late 15th century. A treatise on the properties of plants, fruits, meat and drinks as food and medicine. (In Welsh.)

Jesus College, Oxford.

15th century. Names of herbs.

(Given by Humphrey Moseley, 1649).

69. Emmanuel College, Cambridge.

15th century. Verses in English and Latin on herbs and spices.

(Given by W. Moore.)

176 (I. 2). Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

15th century. Recipes in English and Latin.

(Given by W. Moore.)

230 (II). Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

15th century. Herbes for a saled.

(This once belonged to Nicholas Butler.)

414 (d). Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

15th century. Collection of recipes in English, probably all by John Ardern of Newark. Illustrated with rough coloured drawings of herbs, instruments and patients. It begins, "This is a mirrour of bloodletynge in þe weche þey þt wolen beholden it diligently," etc. There is a recipe in French for Greek fire. Exp. "tabula libri Sirurgice." Mag. Joh. Arderne de Newerk.

(Given by Humphrey Moseley, 1649.)

69. Emmanuel College, Cambridge.

15th century. Here begynnythe an herball of namys & vertues of diverse herbys aftyr letterys of the a, b, c, etc.

905 (I). Trinity College, Cambridge.

15th century. Virtues of various plants.

905 (II. 4). Trinity College, Cambridge.

15th century. On the virtues of herbs.

Inc. "This booke is drawe be Fesyk. That Macer made for hem þat been seck. Y e vertu of herbis it discryeth ryght wel."

1637 (I. i). Trinity College, Cambridge.

1485. A collection of the Latin and English names of plants with their descriptions and medical virtues.

National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.

15th century. Alphabetical list of herbs. (Names partly in Latin and partly in Irish.)

2306. Royal Irish Academy.

15th century. Alphabetical treatise on herbs and their uses. In Latin and Irish.

1315. Trinity College, Dublin.

15th-16th century. List of plants used in medicine. (In Latin and Irish.)

1334 (V). Trinity College, Dublin.

15th century. Vertues of rose maryne þat er contened & compyled in þis space & ar gadirde out of bukes of gude philosofirs & of oþer wyse clerkes.

V. IV. 1. Durham University, Bishop Cosins Library.

Late 15th century. Herbal in Welsh.

In Mr. Wynne's library at Peniarth, Merioneth.

15th century. The vertu of Rose-marry & other Secrets.

Harleian 1735 (XII). British Museum.

15th century. Verses on the virtues of Rosmaryne.

Sloane 3215. British Museum.

15th century. Vertues of the herb betayne.

Rawl. C. 211 (II). Bodleian.

15th century. Treatise on the vertues of herbs.

Addit. 12056. British Museum.

15th century. Treatise on the vertues of herbs & metals in alphabetical order. In Irish.

Addit. 15403. British Museum.

Late 15th century. Herbal.

Inc. Agnus Castus is an herbe.

Harleian 3840 (III). British Museum.

15th century. A fragment of a treatise on the virtues of herbs.

Sloane 7 (III). British Museum.

15th century. An alphabetical herbal.

Sloane 297 (VII). British Museum.

15th century. "Of the vyrtues of the Asche tree," etc.

Sloane 297 (XVII). British Museum.

15th century. The first part of an intended complete body of Pharmacy in seven parts. The first part treats of herbs, which are alphabetically arranged in 150 chapters.

Sloane 404 (I). British Museum.

15th century. On the virtues of herbs, with recipes for various disorders. The last is a charm "for alle maner woundys."

Sloane 540 (I). British Museum.

15th century. For to knowe the ix Sauge levys.

Sloane 706 (VIII). British Museum.

15th century. Treatise on the virtues of herbs alphabetically arranged.

Sloane 1088 (I). British Museum.

15th century. Herbes necessarie for a Gardyn.

Sloane 120 (I). British Museum.

15th century. On the virtues of herbs.

Sloane 2403. British Museum.

15th century. Poem on the virtues of herbs.

Sloane 2457. British Museum.

15th century. Treatise on the virtues of herbs.

Sloane 2460. British Museum.

Early 15th century. A fewe othre dyverse herbes with her vertues wich be not yfound in the bokes of Macer.

Rawl. C. 212 (II). Bodleian.

15th (?) century. A treatise on medicinal herbs. (In Irish.)

Royal Irish Academy, 23 H 19.

15th century. A fragment of a treatise on the medicinal properties of herbs. (In Irish.)

Royal Irish Academy, 2306.

15th (?) century. A treatise on herbs and their medicinal qualities and the mode of preparing and administering them. (In Irish.)

Royal Irish Academy, 2395.

15th-16th century. Alphabetical list of plants used in medicine and the manner of preparing them. (In Latin and Irish.)

1334 (II). Trinity College, Dublin.

1415. Alphabetical list of plants used in medicine. At the end is the transcriber's name, "Aedh Buide O'Leigin," and the date 1415. Also the name of the person from whom the original MS. was purchased - "Tad hg O'Cuinn bachelor in physic." (In Irish.)

1343 (II). Trinity College, Dublin.

15th century. A dictionary of herbs in Latin and English.

In the Marquis of Bath's library at Longleat, Wilts.

15th century. Treatise without title on the virtues of herbs.

In Lord Leconfield's library at Petworth House, Sussex.

15th century. Medicinal qualities of herbs.

Phillipps MS. 11077, now in the library of T. Fitzroy Fenwick, Esq., Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham.

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Sushruta Samhita (c.800 B.C.) Ancient Sanskrit text on ayurvedic medicine. The earliest existing copy is the Bower Manuscript, dating to the 3rd or 4th century AD. The Sushruta Samhita contains information on surgery, herbalism and even water purification. Some of the techniques are surprisingly advanced - including principles of plastic surgery. 1120 medical conditions are listed, together with 700 medicinal plants and 64 preparations from minerals. [3]

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Here is a list of books about the history of herbal literature. Some of these books are, or contain, compendious lists of herbals and were consulted extensively in the preparation of this page.

Sir E. A. Wallis Budge - "Divine Origin of the Craft of the Herbalist" (1924?) First published "at Culpeper House by the Society of Herbalists" in 1928, this fascinating study, running to around 90 pages, discusses the origins of herbalism as derived from the ancient Egyptians of c. 2,000 B.C. , through Greek, Latin and other civilizations. Budge was one of the foremost Egyptologists of all times, and appointer Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum. This work is available as a partial preview on Google Books -

Eleanour Sinclair Rohde - "The Old English Herbals" (1922) An "epic" on the subject of the herbal in the English language, this work lists a veritable mountain of herbals, with commentary on many of the great English herbals from Anglo Saxon times onwards. Much information on medieval manuscripts and their whereabouts. This work is available in full view on Google Books -

Stanley H. Johnston - "The Cleveland Herbal, Botanical, and horticultural collections" (1922) This is a bibliography of pre-1830 herbals and botanical works in the collections of the Holden Arboretum, the Cleveland Medical Library Assoc., and the Garden Center of Greater Cleveland. This is a monumental work, running to over 1000 pages, and it lists a staggering number of herbals. This work is available as a partial preview on Google Books -

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Herbals - info sources


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